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948.13(3)(f) (f) Parks or playground recreation.
948.13(3)(g) (g) School bus driving.
948.14 948.14 Registered sex offender and photographing minors.
948.14(1)(1) Definitions. In this section:
948.14(1)(a) (a) "Captures a representation" has the meaning given in s. 942.09 (1) (a).
948.14(1)(b) (b) "Minor" means an individual who is under 17 years of age.
948.14(1)(c) (c) "Representation" has the meaning giving in s. 942.09 (1) (c).
948.14(1)(d) (d) "Sex offender" means a person who is required to register under s. 301.45.
948.14(2) (2)Prohibition.
948.14(2)(a)(a) A sex offender may not intentionally capture a representation of any minor without the written consent of the minor's parent, legal custodian, or guardian. The written consent required under this paragraph shall state that the person seeking the consent is required to register as a sex offender with the department of corrections.
948.14(2)(b) (b) Paragraph (a) does not apply to a sex offender who is capturing a representation of a minor if the sex offender is the minor's parent, legal custodian, or guardian.
948.14(3) (3)Penalty. Whoever violates sub. (2) is guilty of a Class I felony.
948.14 History History: 2005 a. 432.
948.20 948.20 Abandonment of a child. Whoever, with intent to abandon the child, leaves any child in a place where the child may suffer because of neglect is guilty of a Class G felony.
948.20 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1987 a. 332 s. 35; Stats. 1987 s. 948.20; 2001 a. 109.
948.21 948.21 Neglecting a child.
948.21(1)(1) Any person who is responsible for a child's welfare who, through his or her actions or failure to take action, intentionally contributes to the neglect of the child is guilty of one of the following:
948.21(1)(a) (a) A Class A misdemeanor.
948.21(1)(b) (b) A Class H felony if bodily harm is a consequence.
948.21(1)(c) (c) A Class F felony if great bodily harm is a consequence.
948.21(1)(d) (d) A Class D felony if death is a consequence.
948.21(2) (2) Under sub. (1), a person responsible for the child's welfare contributes to the neglect of the child although the child does not actually become neglected if the natural and probable consequences of the person's actions or failure to take action would be to cause the child to become neglected.
948.21 History History: 1987 a. 332; 2001 a. 109; 2007 a. 80.
948.22 948.22 Failure to support.
948.22(1)(1) In this section:
948.22(1)(a) (a) "Child support" means an amount which a person is ordered to provide for support of a child by a court of competent jurisdiction in this state or in another state, territory or possession of the United States, or, if not ordered, an amount that a person is legally obligated to provide under s. 49.90.
948.22(1)(b) (b) "Grandchild support" means an amount which a person is legally obligated to provide under s. 49.90 (1) (a) 2. and (11).
948.22(1)(c) (c) "Spousal support" means an amount which a person is ordered to provide for support of a spouse or former spouse by a court of competent jurisdiction in this state or in another state, territory or possession of the United States, or, if not ordered, an amount that a person is legally obligated to provide under s. 49.90.
948.22(2) (2) Any person who intentionally fails for 120 or more consecutive days to provide spousal, grandchild or child support which the person knows or reasonably should know the person is legally obligated to provide is guilty of a Class I felony. A prosecutor may charge a person with multiple counts for a violation under this subsection if each count covers a period of at least 120 consecutive days and there is no overlap between periods.
948.22(3) (3) Any person who intentionally fails for less than 120 consecutive days to provide spousal, grandchild or child support which the person knows or reasonably should know the person is legally obligated to provide is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
948.22(4) (4) Under this section, the following is prima facie evidence of intentional failure to provide child, grandchild or spousal support:
948.22(4)(a) (a) For a person subject to a court order requiring child, grandchild or spousal support payments, when the person knows or reasonably should have known that he or she is required to pay support under an order, failure to pay the child, grandchild or spousal support payment required under the order.
948.22(4)(b) (b) For a person not subject to a court order requiring child, grandchild or spousal support payments, when the person knows or reasonably should have known that he or she has a dependent, failure to provide support equal to at least the amount established by rule by the department of children and families under s. 49.22 (9) or causing a spouse, grandchild or child to become a dependent person, or continue to be a dependent person, as defined in s. 49.01 (2).
948.22(5) (5) Under this section, it is not a defense that child, grandchild or spousal support is provided wholly or partially by any other person or entity.
948.22(6) (6) Under this section, affirmative defenses include but are not limited to inability to provide child, grandchild or spousal support. A person may not demonstrate inability to provide child, grandchild or spousal support if the person is employable but, without reasonable excuse, either fails to diligently seek employment, terminates employment or reduces his or her earnings or assets. A person who raises an affirmative defense has the burden of proving the defense by a preponderance of the evidence.
948.22(7) (7)
948.22(7)(a)(a) Before trial, upon petition by the complainant and notice to the defendant, the court may enter a temporary order requiring payment of child, grandchild or spousal support.
948.22(7)(b) (b) In addition to or instead of imposing a penalty authorized for a Class I felony or a Class A misdemeanor, whichever is appropriate, the court shall:
948.22(7)(b)1. 1. If a court order requiring the defendant to pay child, grandchild or spousal support exists, order the defendant to pay the amount required including any amount necessary to meet a past legal obligation for support.
948.22(7)(b)2. 2. If no court order described under subd. 1. exists, enter such an order. For orders for child or spousal support, the court shall determine the amount of support in the manner required under s. 767.511 or 767.89, regardless of the fact that the action is not one for a determination of paternity or an action specified in s. 767.511 (1).
948.22(7)(bm) (bm) Upon request, the court may modify the amount of child or spousal support payments determined under par. (b) 2. if, after considering the factors listed in s. 767.511 (1m), regardless of the fact that the action is not one for a determination of paternity or an action specified in s. 767.511 (1), the court finds, by the greater weight of the credible evidence, that the use of the percentage standard is unfair to the child or to either of the child's parents.
948.22(7)(c) (c) An order under par. (a) or (b), other than an order for grandchild support, constitutes an income assignment under s. 767.75 and may be enforced under s. 767.77. Any payment ordered under par. (a) or (b), other than a payment for grandchild support, shall be made in the manner provided under s. 767.57.
948.22 Annotation Under s. 940.27 (2) [now 948.22 (2], the state must prove that the defendant had an obligation to provide support and failed to do so for 120 days. The state need not prove that the defendant was required to pay a specific amount. Sub. (6) does not unconstitutionally shift the burden of proof. State v. Duprey, 149 Wis. 2d 655, 439 N.W.2d 837 (Ct. App. 1989).
948.22 Annotation Multiple prosecutions for a continuous failure to pay child support are allowed. State v. Grayson, 172 Wis. 2d 156, 493 N.W.2d 23 (1992).
948.22 Annotation Jurisdiction in a criminal nonsupport action under s. 948.22 does not require that the child to be supported be a resident of Wisconsin during the charged period. State v. Gantt, 201 Wis. 2d 206, 548 N.W.2d 134 (Ct. App. 1996), 95-2469.
948.22 Annotation Evidence of incarceration to prove inability to pay is not excluded under sub. (6), and there was no basis to find the evidence irrelevant. State v. Stutesman, 221 Wis. 2d 178, 585 N.W.2d 181 (Ct. App. 1998), 97-2991.
948.22 Annotation This section does not distinguish between support and arrearages. It criminalizes failure to pay arrearages even after the child for whom support is ordered attains majority. Incarceration for violation of this section is not unconstitutional imprisonment for a debt. State v. Lenz, 230 Wis. 2d 529, 602 N.W.2d 172 (Ct. App. 1999), 99-0860.
948.22 Annotation If nonsupport is charged as a continuing offense, the statute of limitations runs from the last date the defendant intentionally fails to provide support. If charges are brought for each 120 day period that a person does not pay, the statute of limitations bars charging for those 120 periods that are more than 6 years old. The running of the statute of limitations does not prevent inclusion of all unpaid amounts in a later arrearage order. State v. Monarch, 230 Wis. 2d 542, 602 N.W.2d 179 (Ct. App. 1999), 99-1054.
948.22 Annotation A father, who intentionally refused to pay child support could, as a condition of probation, be required to avoid having another child unless he showed that he could support that child and his current children. In light of the defendant's ongoing victimization of his children and record manifesting his disregard for the law, the condition was not overly broad and was reasonably related to the defendant's rehabilitation. State v. Oakley, 2001 WI 103, 245 Wis. 2d 447, 629 N.W.2d 200, 99-3328.
948.22 Annotation Whether a court of competent jurisdiction ordered a defendant to pay child support is not an element of failure to pay child support. A question in that regard need not be submitted to the jury. Because the defendant father did not identify a historical fact inconsistent with an incident of the Maine court's jurisdiction, whether a court of competent jurisdiction ordered him to pay child support was a purely legal question for the court to determine. State v. Smith, 2005 WI 104, 283 Wis. 2d 57, 699 N.W.2d 508, 03-1698.
948.23 948.23 Concealing or not reporting death of a child; not reporting disappearance of a child.
948.23(1) (1) Whoever does any of the following is guilty of a Class I felony:
948.23(1)(a) (a) Conceals the corpse of any issue of a woman's body with intent to prevent a determination of whether it was born dead or alive.
948.23(1)(b) (b) Unless a physician or an authority of a hospital, sanatorium, public or private institution, convalescent home, or any institution of a like nature is required to report the death under s. 979.01 (1) or unless a report conflicts with religious tenets or practices, fails to report to law enforcement the death of a child immediately after discovering the death, or as soon as practically possible if immediate reporting is impossible, if the actor is the parent, stepparent, guardian, or legal custodian of the child and if any of the following applies:
948.23(1)(b)1. 1. The death involves unexplained, unusual, or suspicious circumstances.
948.23(1)(b)2. 2. The death is or appears to be a homicide or a suicide.
948.23(1)(b)3. 3. The death is due to poisoning.
948.23(1)(b)4. 4. The death follows an accident, whether the injury is or is not the primary cause of the death.
948.23(2) (2) Whoever, without authorization under s. 69.18 or other legal authority to move a corpse, hides or buries the corpse of a child is guilty of a Class F felony.
948.23(3) (3)
948.23(3)(ag)(ag) In this subsection, "missing" means absent without a reasonable explanation if the absence would raise concern in a reasonable person for the child's well-being.
948.23(3)(am) (am) Within the period under par. (b), an individual must report to law enforcement a child as missing if the individual is the parent, stepparent, guardian, or legal custodian of the child.
948.23(3)(b)1.1. The report under par. (am) must be made within 24 hours after the child is discovered to be missing if the child is under 13 years of age when the discovery is made.
948.23(3)(b)2. 2. The report under par. (am) must be made within 48 hours after the child is discovered to be missing if the child is at least 13 years of age but under 16 years of age when the discovery is made.
948.23(3)(b)3. 3. The report under par. (am) must be made within 72 hours after the child is discovered to be missing if the child is at least 16 years of age when the discovery is made.
948.23(3)(c) (c) Whoever violates par. (am) is guilty of the following:
948.23(3)(c)1. 1. Except as provided in subds. 2. to 4., a Class A misdemeanor.
948.23(3)(c)2. 2. If the child suffers bodily harm or substantial bodily harm while he or she is missing, a Class H felony.
948.23(3)(c)3. 3. If the child suffers great bodily harm while he or she is missing, a Class F felony.
948.23(3)(c)4. 4. If the child dies while he or she is missing or as a result of an injury he or she suffered while missing, a Class D felony.
948.23 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1987 a. 332 s. 47; Stats. 1987 s. 948.23; 2001 a. 109; 2011 a. 268; 2013 a. 168 s. 21.
948.24 948.24 Unauthorized placement for adoption.
948.24(1)(1) Whoever does any of the following is guilty of a Class H felony:
948.24(1)(a) (a) Places or agrees to place his or her child for adoption for anything exceeding the actual cost of the items listed in s. 48.913 (1) (a) to (m) and the payments authorized under s. 48.913 (2).
948.24(1)(b) (b) For anything of value, solicits, negotiates or arranges the placement of a child for adoption except under s. 48.833.
948.24(1)(c) (c) In order to receive a child for adoption, gives anything exceeding the actual cost of the legal and other services rendered in connection with the adoption and the items listed in s. 48.913 (1) (a) to (m) and the payments authorized under s. 48.913 (2).
948.24(2) (2) This section does not apply to placements under s. 48.839.
948.24 History History: 1981 c. 81; 1987 a. 332 s. 50; Stats. 1987 s. 948.24; 1989 a. 161; 1997 a. 104; 2001 a. 109.
948.30 948.30 Abduction of another's child; constructive custody.
948.30(1)(1) Any person who, for any unlawful purpose, does any of the following is guilty of a Class E felony:
948.30(1)(a) (a) Takes a child who is not his or her own by birth or adoption from the child's home or the custody of his or her parent, guardian or legal custodian.
948.30(1)(b) (b) Detains a child who is not his or her own by birth or adoption when the child is away from home or the custody of his or her parent, guardian or legal custodian.
948.30(2) (2) Any person who, for any unlawful purpose, does any of the following is guilty of a Class C felony:
948.30(2)(a) (a) By force or threat of imminent force, takes a child who is not his or her own by birth or adoption from the child's home or the custody of his or her parent, guardian or legal custodian.
948.30(2)(b) (b) By force or threat of imminent force, detains a child who is not his or her own by birth or adoption when the child is away from home or the custody of his or her parent, guardian or legal custodian.
948.30(3) (3) For purposes of subs. (1) (a) and (2) (a), a child is in the custody of his or her parent, guardian or legal custodian if:
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 200 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before April 18, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after April 18, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 4-18-14)