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968.135 Annotation A bank's voluntary surrender of records other than those demanded on the subpoena provided no basis for suppression. State v. Swift, 173 Wis. 2d 870, 496 N.W.2d 713 (Ct. App. 1993).
968.135 Annotation This section protects the interests of persons whose documents are sought in addition to protecting the interests of the person on whom a subpoena is served. The defendant had standing to challenge subpoenas issued to produce her bank records. A person has standing to seek judicial intervention when that person has a personal stake in the outcome and is directly affected by the issues in controversy. State v. Popenhagen, 2008 WI 55, 309 Wis. 2d 601, 749 N.W.2d 611, 06-1114.
968.135 Annotation This section encompasses a motion to suppress documents in violation of this section and to suppress statements directly derived from those documents. The circuit court has discretion to suppress or allow evidence obtained in violation of a statute that does not specifically require suppression of evidence obtained contrary to the statute, depending on the facts and circumstances of the case and the objectives of the statute. State v. Popenhagen, 2008 WI 55, 309 Wis. 2d 601, 749 N.W.2d 611, 06-1114.
968.135 Annotation If a person were permitted to bring a motion to quash the subpoena for bank documents unlawfully obtained but not permitted to bring a motion to suppress incriminating statements derived directly from the unlawfully obtained bank documents, the person would not get the full benefit of the protections of the statute, and the underlying objectives of the statute would be defeated. State v. Popenhagen, 2008 WI 55, 309 Wis. 2d 601, 749 N.W.2d 611, 06-1114.
968.14 968.14 Use of force. All necessary force may be used to execute a search warrant or to effect any entry into any building or property or part thereof to execute a search warrant.
968.14 Annotation Officers acted legally when, armed with a search warrant, they knocked on a door, pushed it open when the defendant opened it 2 inches, and put him under restraint before showing the warrant. State v. Meier, 60 Wis. 2d 452, 210 N.W.2d 685 (1973).
968.14 Annotation To dispense with the rule of announcement in executing a warrant, particular facts must be shown in each case that support an officer's reasonable suspicion that exigent circumstances exist. An officer's experience and training are valid relevant considerations. State v. Meyer, 216 Wis. 2d 729, 576 N.W.2d 260 (1998), 96-2243.
968.14 Annotation Irrespective of whether the search warrant authorizes a "no-knock" entry, reasonableness is determined when the warrant is executed. State v. Davis, 2000 WI 270, 240 Wis. 2d 15, 622 N.W.2d 1.
968.14 Annotation There is no blanket exception to the knock and announce requirement for executing warrants. To justify no-knock entry, a reasonable suspicion that knocking and announcing will be dangerous, or futile, or will inhibit the effective investigation of a crime must exist. Richards v. Wisconsin, 520 U.S. 385, 137 L. Ed. 2d 615 (1997).
968.14 Note NOTE: See also the notes to Article I, section 11, of the Wisconsin Constitution.
968.15 968.15 Search warrants; when executable.
968.15(1) (1) A search warrant must be executed and returned not more than 5 days after the date of issuance.
968.15(2) (2) Any search warrant not executed within the time provided in sub. (1) shall be void and shall be returned to the judge issuing it.
968.15 Annotation Execution of search warrant is timely if in compliance with (1) and if probable cause which led to issuance still exists at time of execution. Defense has burden of proof in timeliness challenge. State v. Edwards, 98 Wis. 2d 367, 297 N.W.2d 12 (1980).
968.15 Annotation Law enforcement's failure to return an order and inventory within the confines of ss. 968.15 and 968.17 did not render the execution of the order unreasonable. The timely return of a warrant is a ministerial duty that does not affect the validity of the search absent prejudice to the defendant. State v. Sveum, 2010 WI 92, 328 Wis. 2d 369, 787 N.W.2d 317, 08-0658.
968.16 968.16 Detention and search of persons on premises. The person executing the search warrant may reasonably detain and search any person on the premises at the time to protect himself or herself from attack or to prevent the disposal or concealment of any item particularly described in the search warrant.
968.16 History History: 1993 a. 486.
968.16 Annotation The defendant had sufficient control and dominion over a car for it to be considered "premises," justifying a search of the defendant. State v. Reed, 156 Wis. 2d 546, 457 N.W.2d 494 (Ct. App 1990).
968.16 Annotation The frisk of a person not named in a search warrant during the execution of the warrant was reasonable when occupants of the residence were very likely to be involved in drug trafficking; drugs felt in a pocket during the frisk were lawfully seized when the officer had probable cause to believe that there was a connection between what was felt and criminal activity. State v. Guy, 172 Wis. 2d 86, 492 N.W.2d 311 (1992).
968.16 Annotation Law enforcement's failure to return an order and inventory within the confines of ss. 968.15 and 968.17 did not render the execution of the order unreasonable. The timely return of a warrant is a ministerial duty that does not affect the validity of the search absent prejudice to the defendant. State v. Sveum, 2010 WI 92, 328 Wis. 2d 369; 787 N.W.2d 317, 08-0658.
968.16 Note NOTE: See also the notes to Article I, section 11, of the Wisconsin Constitution.
968.17 968.17 Return of search warrant.
968.17(1) (1) The return of the search warrant shall be made within 48 hours after execution to the clerk designated in the warrant. The return shall be accompanied by a written inventory of any property taken. Upon request, the clerk shall deliver a copy of the inventory to the person from whom or from whose premises the property was taken and to the applicant for the search warrant.
968.17(2) (2) An affidavit or complaint made in support of the issuance of the warrant and the transcript of any testimony taken shall be filed with the clerk within 5 days after the date of the execution of any search warrant.
968.17 History History: 1971 c. 298.
968.17 Annotation In computing the time within which a search warrant must be returned, the court may exclude the hours between 4:30 p.m. Friday and 8 a.m. Monday. Such a delay would not affect the validity of the search. State v. Meier, 60 Wis. 2d 452, 210 N.W.2d 685 (1973).
968.17 Annotation The trial court erred in suppressing controlled substances and associated paraphernalia seized pursuant to a search warrant on the ground that a transcript of testimony upon which the warrant was based was not filed within 5 days of its execution, as required by sub. (2), because: 1) s. 968.22 provides that no evidence seized under a search warrant may be suppressed due to technical irregularities not affecting the defendant's substantial rights; 2) the 5-day filing requirement is a ministerial duty, a violation of which does not invalidate a search absent prejudice; and 3) there was no prejudice when the transcript was filed approximately 6 weeks prior to the filing of the information, before which the defendant was statutorily precluded from making any motion to suppress. State v. Elam, 68 Wis. 2d 614, 229 N.W.2d 664 (1975).
968.18 968.18 Receipt for seized property. Any law enforcement officer seizing any items without a search warrant shall give a receipt as soon as practicable to the person from whose possession they are taken. Failure to give such receipt shall not render the evidence seized inadmissible upon a trial.
968.19 968.19 Custody of property seized. Property seized under a search warrant or validly seized without a warrant shall be safely kept by the officer, who may leave it in the custody of the sheriff and take a receipt therefor, so long as necessary for the purpose of being produced as evidence on any trial.
968.20 968.20 Return of property seized.
968.20(1) (1) Any person claiming the right to possession of property seized pursuant to a search warrant or seized without a search warrant may apply for its return to the circuit court for the county in which the property was seized or where the search warrant was returned. The court shall order such notice as it deems adequate to be given the district attorney and all persons who have or may have an interest in the property and shall hold a hearing to hear all claims to its true ownership. If the right to possession is proved to the court's satisfaction, it shall order the property, other than contraband or property covered under sub. (1m) or (1r) or s. 173.12, 173.21 (4), or 968.205, returned if:
968.20(1)(a) (a) The property is not needed as evidence or, if needed, satisfactory arrangements can be made for its return for subsequent use as evidence; or
968.20(1)(b) (b) All proceedings in which it might be required have been completed.
968.20(1m) (1m)
968.20(1m)(a)(a) In this subsection:
968.20(1m)(a)1. 1. "Crime" includes an act committed by a juvenile or by an adult who is adjudicated incompetent that would have been a crime if the act had been committed by a competent adult.
968.20(1m)(a)2. 2. "Dangerous weapon" has the meaning given in s. 939.22 (10).
968.20(1m)(b) (b) If the seized property is a dangerous weapon or ammunition, the property shall not be returned to any person who committed a crime involving the use of the dangerous weapon or the ammunition. The property may be returned to the rightful owner under this section if the owner had no prior knowledge of and gave no consent to the commission of the crime. Property which may not be returned to an owner under this subsection shall be disposed of under subs. (3) and (4).
968.20(1r) (1r)
968.20(1r)(a)(a) If the seized property is a firearm ordered seized under s. 51.20 (13) (cv) 1., 2007 stats., the court that issued that order shall order the firearm returned if the order under s. 51.20 (13) (cv) 1., 2007 stats., has been canceled under s. 51.20 (13) (cv) 2. or (16) (gm), 2007 stats., or is canceled under s. 51.20 (13) (cv) 1m. c.
968.20(1r)(b) (b) If the seized property is a firearm ordered seized under s. 51.20 (13) (cv) 1., the court that issued that order shall order the firearm returned if the order under s. 51.20 (13) (cv) 1. is canceled under s. 51.20 (13) (cv) 1m. c.
968.20(1r)(c) (c) If the seized property is a firearm ordered seized under s. 51.45 (13) (i) 1., the court that issued that order shall order the firearm returned if the order under s. 51.45 (13) (i) 1. is canceled under s. 51.45 (13) (i) 2. c.
968.20(1r)(d) (d) If the seized property is a firearm ordered seized under s. 54.10 (3) (f) 1., the court that issued that order shall order the firearm returned if the order under s. 54.10 (3) (f) 1. is canceled under s. 54.10 (3) (f) 2. c.
968.20(1r)(e) (e) If the seized property is a firearm ordered seized under s. 55.12 (10) (a), the court that issued that order shall order the firearm returned if the order under s. 55.12 (10) (a) is canceled under s. 55.12 (10) (b) 3.
968.20(2) (2) Property not required for evidence or use in further investigation, unless contraband or property covered under sub. (1m) or (1r) or s. 173.12 or 968.205, may be returned by the officer to the person from whom it was seized without the requirement of a hearing.
968.20(3) (3)
968.20(3)(a)(a) First class cities shall dispose of dangerous weapons or ammunition seized 12 months after taking possession of them if the owner, authorized under sub. (1m), has not requested their return and if the dangerous weapon or ammunition is not required for evidence or use in further investigation and has not been disposed of pursuant to a court order at the completion of a criminal action or proceeding. Disposition procedures shall be established by ordinance or resolution and may include provisions authorizing an attempt to return to the rightful owner any dangerous weapons or ammunition which appear to be stolen or are reported stolen. If enacted, any such provision shall include a presumption that if the dangerous weapons or ammunition appear to be or are reported stolen an attempt will be made to return the dangerous weapons or ammunition to the authorized rightful owner. If the return of a seized dangerous weapon other than a firearm is not requested by its rightful owner under sub. (1) and is not returned by the officer under sub. (2), the city shall safely dispose of the dangerous weapon or, if the dangerous weapon is a motor vehicle, as defined in s. 340.01 (35), sell the motor vehicle following the procedure under s. 973.075 (4) or authorize a law enforcement agency to retain and use the motor vehicle. If the return of a seized firearm or ammunition is not requested by its authorized rightful owner under sub. (1) and is not returned by the officer under sub. (2), the seized firearm or ammunition shall be shipped to and become property of the state crime laboratories. A person designated by the department of justice may destroy any material for which the laboratory has no use or arrange for the exchange of material with other public agencies. In lieu of destruction, shoulder weapons for which the laboratories have no use shall be turned over to the department of natural resources for sale and distribution of proceeds under s. 29.934 or for use under s. 29.938.
968.20(3)(b) (b) Except as provided in par. (a) or sub. (1m) or (4), a city, village, town or county or other custodian of a seized dangerous weapon or ammunition, if the dangerous weapon or ammunition is not required for evidence or use in further investigation and has not been disposed of pursuant to a court order at the completion of a criminal action or proceeding, shall make reasonable efforts to notify all persons who have or may have an authorized rightful interest in the dangerous weapon or ammunition of the application requirements under sub. (1). If, within 30 days after the notice, an application under sub. (1) is not made and the seized dangerous weapon or ammunition is not returned by the officer under sub. (2), the city, village, town or county or other custodian may retain the dangerous weapon or ammunition and authorize its use by a law enforcement agency, except that a dangerous weapon used in the commission of a homicide or a handgun, as defined in s. 175.35 (1) (b), may not be retained. If a dangerous weapon other than a firearm is not so retained, the city, village, town or county or other custodian shall safely dispose of the dangerous weapon or, if the dangerous weapon is a motor vehicle, as defined in s. 340.01 (35), sell the motor vehicle following the procedure under s. 973.075 (4). If a firearm or ammunition is not so retained, the city, village, town or county or other custodian shall ship it to the state crime laboratories and it is then the property of the laboratories. A person designated by the department of justice may destroy any material for which the laboratories have no use or arrange for the exchange of material with other public agencies. In lieu of destruction, shoulder weapons for which the laboratory has no use shall be turned over to the department of natural resources for sale and distribution of proceeds under s. 29.934 or for use under s. 29.938.
968.20(4) (4) Any property seized, other than property covered under s. 968.205, that poses a danger to life or other property in storage, transportation or use and that is not required for evidence or further investigation shall be safely disposed of upon command of the person in whose custody they are committed. The city, village, town or county shall by ordinance or resolution establish disposal procedures. Procedures may include provisions authorizing an attempt to return to the rightful owner substances which have a commercial value in normal business usage and do not pose an immediate threat to life or property. If enacted, any such provision shall include a presumption that if the substance appears to be or is reported stolen an attempt will be made to return the substance to the rightful owner.
968.20 Annotation A claimant of seized property has the burden of showing that it is not contraband and is not needed as evidence in a possible retrial. Money may be applied to the payment of counsel fees. Welter v. Sauk County Clerk of Court, 53 Wis. 2d 178, 191 N.W.2d 852 (1971).
968.20 Annotation Under sub. (1m) (b), "rightful owner" refers to an innocent person who owned a firearm or ammunition at the time an offense was committed. State v. Williams, 148 Wis. 2d 852, 436 N.W.2d 924 (Ct. App. 1989).
968.20 Annotation Whether explicit photographs seized during the execution of a search warrant were contraband is discussed. In re Return of Property in State v. Benhoff, 185 Wis. 2d 600, 518 N.W.2d 307 (Ct. App. 1994).
968.20 Annotation In the event that the district attorney elects not to bring a forfeiture action against seized property, a person seeking the return of the property may do so under this section, not s. 961.55 (3). Jones v. State, 226 Wis. 2d 565, 594 N.W.2d 738 (1999), 97-3306.
968.20 Annotation The definition of contraband in s. 968.13 applies to this section. The burden is on the state to prove by the greater weight of the credible evidence that property is contraband not subject to return under this section. Jones v. State, 226 Wis. 2d 565, 594 N.W.2d 738 (1999), 97-3306.
968.20 Annotation The term "use" in sub. (1m) (b) requires more than than the mere fact that a firearm is with a person. It must be part of the crime in some way. State v. Perez, 2000 WI App 115, 235 Wis. 2d 238, 612 N.W.2d 374, 99-3108.
968.20 Annotation This section establishes an in rem proceeding to establish true ownership of property. It does not authorize granting a money judgment to the rightful owner when seized property is missing or mistakenly returned to another as a judgment in an in rem proceeding is valid only against the property and not against a defendant or a defendant's assets. City of Milwaukee v. Glass, 2001 WI 61, 243 Wis. 2d 636, 628 N.W.2d 343, 99-2389.
968.20 Annotation Sub. (1m) (b) prohibits the return of a dangerous weapon to a person convicted of carrying a concealed and dangerous weapon. State v. Perez, 2001 WI 79, 244 Wis. 2d 582, 628 N.W.2d 820, 99-3108.
968.20 Annotation Sub. (1m) (b) is subject to the excessive fines clause of the 8th amendment. State v. Bergquist, 2002 WI App 39, 250 Wis. 2d 792, 641 N.W.2d 179, 01-0814.
968.20 Annotation Sub. (1m) (b) forbids returning weapons to one who committed a crime involving their use; it does not require that the defendant be convicted of that crime. Agreeing to a crime being read in at the time of sentencing constitutes an admission of having committed the crime. When charged with possession of a firearm by a person ordered not to possess a firearm under an injunction, a defendant need not have them literally in his hands or on premises that he occupies but must have the right to possess them. Not having contact with the weapons for several years did not establish lack of possession, especially when the defendant was allowing the firearms to appreciate for later sale. State v. Kueny, 2006 WI App 197, 296 Wis. 2d 658, 724 N.W. 2d 399, 04-1291.
968.20 Annotation A law enforcement agency may not retain unclaimed contraband money for its own use. In the absence of an asset forfeiture proceeding initiated by the state or a judicial determination that the money constitutes contraband, a local law enforcement agency should dispose of the money as unclaimed property under s. 59.66 (2). OAG 10-09.
968.20 Annotation Due process does not require states to give detailed instructions to owners who seek the return of lawfully seized property no longer needed in a police interrogation or criminal proceeding. West Covina v. Perkins, 525 U.S. 234, 142 L.Ed. 2d 636 (1999).
968.20 Annotation This section applies although a criminal action has not been commenced; the property owner has the burden of moving for the return of the property. Supreme Video, Inc. v. Schulz, 808 F. Supp. 1380 (1992).
968.205 968.205 Preservation of certain evidence.
968.205(1) (1) In this section:
968.205(1)(a) (a) "Custody" means actual custody of a person under a sentence of imprisonment, custody of a probationer, parolee, or person on extended supervision by the department of corrections, actual or constructive custody of a person pursuant to a dispositional order under ch. 938, supervision of a person, whether in institutional care or on conditional release, pursuant to a commitment order under s. 971.17 and supervision of a person under ch. 980, whether in detention before trial or while in institutional care or on supervised release pursuant to a commitment order.
968.205(1)(b) (b) "Discharge date" means the date on which a person is released or discharged from custody that resulted from a criminal action, a delinquency proceeding under ch. 938, or a commitment proceeding under s. 971.17 or ch. 980 or, if the person is serving consecutive sentences of imprisonment, the date on which the person is released or discharged from custody under all of the sentences.
968.205(2) (2) Except as provided in sub. (3), if physical evidence that is in the possession of a law enforcement agency includes any biological material that was collected in connection with a criminal investigation that resulted in a criminal conviction, delinquency adjudication, or commitment under s. 971.17 or 980.06 and the biological material is from a victim of the offense that was the subject of the criminal investigation or may reasonably be used to incriminate or exculpate any person for the offense, the law enforcement agency shall preserve the physical evidence until every person in custody as a result of the conviction, adjudication, or commitment has reached his or her discharge date.
968.205(2m) (2m) A law enforcement agency shall retain evidence to which sub. (2) applies in an amount and manner sufficient to develop a deoxyribonucleic acid profile, as defined in s. 939.74 (2d) (a), from the biological material contained in or included on the evidence.
968.205(3) (3) Subject to sub. (5), a law enforcement agency may destroy evidence that includes biological material before the expiration of the time period specified in sub. (2) if all of the following apply:
968.205(3)(a) (a) The law enforcement agency sends a notice of its intent to destroy the evidence to all persons who remain in custody as a result of the criminal conviction, delinquency adjudication, or commitment, and to either the attorney of record for each person in custody or the state public defender.
968.205(3)(b) (b) No person who is notified under par. (a) does either of the following within 90 days after the date on which the person received the notice:
968.205(3)(b)1. 1. Files a motion for testing of the evidence under s. 974.07 (2).
968.205(3)(b)2. 2. Submits a written request for retention of the evidence to the law enforcement agency.
968.205(3)(c) (c) No other provision of federal or state law requires the law enforcement agency to retain the evidence.
968.205(4) (4) A notice provided under sub. (3) (a) shall clearly inform the recipient that the evidence will be destroyed unless, within 90 days after the date on which the person receives the notice, either a motion for testing of the evidence is filed under s. 974.07 (2) or a written request for retention of the evidence is submitted to the law enforcement agency.
968.205(5) (5) If, after providing notice under sub. (3) (a) of its intent to destroy evidence, a law enforcement agency receives a written request for retention of the evidence, the law enforcement agency shall retain the evidence until the discharge date of the person who made the request or on whose behalf the request was made, subject to a court order issued under s. 974.07 (7), (9) (a), or (10) (a) 5., unless the court orders destruction or transfer of the evidence under s. 974.07 (9) (b) or (10) (a) 5.
968.205 History History: 2001 a. 16; 2005 a. 60.
968.21 968.21 Search warrant; secrecy. A search warrant shall be issued with all practicable secrecy, and the complaint, affidavit or testimony upon which it is based shall not be filed with the clerk or made public in any way until the search warrant is executed.
968.22 968.22 Effect of technical irregularities. No evidence seized under a search warrant shall be suppressed because of technical irregularities not affecting the substantial rights of the defendant.
968.22 Annotation The incorrect identification of a building's address in a warrant was a technical error and did not render the resulting search unreasonable when the search made was of the building identified by the informant, which was otherwise correctly identified in the warrant. State v. Nicholson, 174 Wis. 2d 542, 497 N.W.2d 791 (Ct. App. 1993).
968.22 Annotation Mistakes on the face of a warrant were a technical irregularity under s. 968.22 and the warrant met the 4th amendment standard of reasonableness when although the warrant identified the car to be searched incorrectly two times, the executing officer attached and incorporated an affidavit that correctly identified the car 3 times, describing the correct color, make, model, and style of the car along with the correct license plate, and the information was based on the executing officer's personal knowledge from prior encounters. State v. Rogers, 2008 WI App 176, 315 Wis. 2d 60, 762 N.W.2d 795, 07-1850.
968.22 Note NOTE: See also the notes to Article I, section 11, of the Wisconsin Constitution.
968.23 968.23 Forms. The following forms for use under this chapter are illustrative and not mandatory:
STATE OF WISCONSIN,
.... County.
AFFIDAVIT OR COMPLAINT.
In the .... court of the .... of ....
A. B., being duly sworn, says that on the .... day of ...., A. D., .... (year), in said county, in and upon certain premises in the (city, town or village) of .... in said county, occupied by .... and more particularly described as follows: (describe the premises) there are now located and concealed certain things, to wit: (describe the things to be searched for) (possessed for the purpose of evading or violating the laws of the state of Wisconsin and contrary to section .... of the Wisconsin statutes) (or, which things were stolen from their true owner, in violation of section .... of the Wisconsin statutes) (or, which things were used in the commission of (or may constitute evidence of) a crime to wit: (describe crime) committed in violation of section .... of the Wisconsin statutes).
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 200 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before April 18, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after April 18, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 4-18-14)