103.34(12)(b) (b) In addition to the penalties under par. (a), any person that employs or permits the employment of any individual as a traveling sales crew worker in violation of sub. (2), (5) (b), (9) (b), or (11) (a) or (c) shall be liable, in addition to the wages paid, to pay to each individual affected, an amount equal to twice the regular rate of pay as liquidated damages for all hours worked in violation per day or per week, whichever is greater.
103.34(12)(c) (c) The department of workforce development may refer violations of this section or of any rules promulgated under sub. (13) for prosecution by the department of justice or the district attorney of the county in which the violation occurred.
103.34(13) (13)Rules. The department shall promulgate rules to implement this section. Those rules shall include all of the following:
103.34(13)(a) (a) A fee for obtaining a certificate of registration. The department shall determine the fee based on the cost of issuing certificates of registration. The department may not require an individual who is eligible for a fee waiver under the veterans fee waiver program under s. 45.44 to pay a fee for obtaining a certificate of registration.
103.34(13)(b) (b) Minimum requirements for the issuance of a certificate of registration.
103.34(13)(c) (c) Safety standards relating to the transportation of traveling sales crew workers, the storage, handling, and transportation of hazardous materials by traveling sales crews and any other exposure of a traveling sales crew worker to hazardous materials, and the training of traveling sales crews in the storage, handling, and transportation of hazardous materials.
103.34(13)(d) (d) The amount of liability insurance that an employer of a traveling sales crew worker shall have in force under sub. (8).
103.34(14) (14)Nonapplicability; nonpreemption.
103.34(14)(a)(a) This section does not apply to the employment of a person in a fund-raising sale for a nonprofit organization, as defined in s. 103.21 (2), a public school, as defined in s. 103.21 (5), or a private school, as defined in s. 103.21 (4).
103.34(14)(b) (b) This section does not preempt a county, city, village, or town from enacting a local ordinance regulating traveling sales crew activities. To the extent that a local ordinance regulates conduct that is regulated under this section, the local ordinance shall be at least as strict as the regulation of that conduct under this section.
103.34 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ch. DWD 273, Wis. adm. code.
103.35 103.35 Information required for licensure. No state office, department, board, examining board, affiliated credentialing board, commission, council or independent agency in the executive branch, the legislature or the courts may, as a condition for receiving an occupational or professional certificate, license, permit or registration, require the submission of information by the applicant which is not essential for the determination of eligibility for the issuance or renewal of the certificate, license, permit or registration. Information which is not essential to determine eligibility for issuance or renewal may be requested but the applicant shall be notified in a prominent place on or accompanying the request that she or he is not required to provide such information.
103.35 History History: 1979 c. 34; 1993 a. 107.
103.36 103.36 Employer right to solicit salary information of prospective employees; statewide concern; uniformity.
103.36(1)(1)An employer may solicit information regarding the salary history of prospective employees.
103.36(2) (2)The legislature finds that the provision of an employer right to solicit salary information that is uniform throughout the state is a matter of statewide concern and that the enactment of an ordinance by a city, village, town, or county that prohibits an employer from soliciting salary information would be logically inconsistent with, would defeat the purpose of, and would go against the spirit of this section. Therefore, this section shall be construed as an enactment of statewide concern for the purpose of providing an employer right to solicit salary information that is uniform throughout the state.
103.36(3) (3)
103.36(3)(a)(a) No city, village, town, or county may enact or enforce an ordinance prohibiting an employer from soliciting information regarding the salary history of prospective employees.
103.36(3)(b) (b) If a city, village, town, or county has in effect on April 18, 2018, an ordinance prohibiting an employer from soliciting information regarding the salary history of prospective employees, the ordinance does not apply and may not be enforced.
103.36 History History: 2017 a. 327.
103.37 103.37 Certain requirements to obtaining employment prohibited.
103.37(1m)(1m)In this section:
103.37(1m)(a) (a) “Employee" means a person who may be permitted, required or directed by an employer, in consideration of direct or indirect gain or profit, to engage in any employment.
103.37(1m)(b) (b) “Employer" means an individual, partnership, association, corporation, limited liability company, legal representative, trustee, receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, or any common carrier by rail, motor, water or air doing business in or operating within the state.
103.37(2m) (2m)No employer may require any employee or applicant for employment to pay the cost of a medical examination required by the employer as a condition of employment.
103.37(4) (4)Any employer who violates this section may be fined not more than $100 for each violation. The department shall enforce this section.
103.37 Annotation The state, its political subdivisions, and the counties are not employers under this section. 69 Atty. Gen. 103.
103.38 103.38 Eight-hour work day; applicability.
103.38(1)(1)Subject to sub. (2), in all engagements to labor in any manufacturing or mechanical business if there is no express contract to the contrary, a day's work shall consist of 8 hours and all engagements or contracts for labor in a manufacturing or mechanical business shall be so construed.
103.38(2) (2)Subsection (1) does not apply to any contract for labor by the week, month or year.
103.38 History History: 1997 a. 253.
103.43 103.43 Fraudulent advertising for labor.
103.43(1)(a) (a) No person may influence, induce, persuade or attempt to influence, induce, persuade or engage a worker to change from one place of employment to another in this state or to accept employment in this state, and no person may bring a worker of any class or calling into this state to work in any department of labor in this state, through or by means of any false or deceptive representations, false advertising or false pretenses concerning or arising from any of the following:
103.43(1)(a)1. 1. The kind and character of the work to be done.
103.43(1)(a)2. 2. The amount and character of the compensation to be paid for work.
103.43(1)(a)3. 3. The sanitary or other conditions of the employment.
103.43(1)(a)4. 4. The failure to state in any advertisement, proposal or contract for the employment that there is a strike or lockout at the place of the proposed employment, when a strike or lockout then actually exists in the employment at the proposed place of employment.
103.43(1)(b) (b) Any of the acts described in par. (a) shall be considered a false advertisement or misrepresentation for the purposes of this section.
103.43(1m) (1m)A strike or lockout is considered to exist as long as any of the following conditions exists:
103.43(1m)(a) (a) The usual concomitants of a strike or lockout.
103.43(1m)(b) (b) Unemployment on the part of workers affected continues.
103.43(1m)(c) (c) Any payments of strike benefits are being made.
103.43(1m)(d) (d) Any picketing is maintained.
103.43(1m)(e) (e) Publication is being made of the existence of a strike or lockout.
103.43(2) (2)Any person who, by himself or herself, or by a servant or agent, or as the servant or agent of any other person, or as an officer, director, servant or agent of any firm, corporation, association or organization of any kind, violates sub. (1) (a) shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned in the county jail for not more than one year or both.
103.43(3) (3)Any worker who is influenced, induced or persuaded to engage with any person specified in sub. (1) (a), through or by means of any of the acts prohibited in sub. (1) (a), shall have a right of action for recovery of all damages that the worker sustains in consequence of the false or deceptive representation, false advertising or false pretenses used to induce the worker to change his or her place of employment in this state or to accept employment in this state, against any person, corporation, company or association, directly or indirectly, causing the damage. In addition to all actual damages that the worker may sustain, the worker shall be entitled to recover reasonable attorney fees as determined by the court, to be taxed as costs in any judgment recovered.
103.43 History History: 1993 a. 492; 1995 a. 225; 1997 a. 253.
103.43 Annotation This section applies only to manual laborers, particularly those in industrial labor. Bellon v. Ripon College, 2005 WI App 29, 278 Wis. 2d 790, 693 N.W.2d 330, 04-0515.
103.45 103.45 Time checks; penalty. All persons paying wages in time checks or paper, other than legal money, shall make those time checks or that paper payable in some designated place of business in the county in which the work was performed or at the office of the person paying the wages if within this state, or at any bank within this state. Any person failing to comply with this section shall be fined not less than $10 nor more than $100.
103.45 History History: 1997 a. 253.
103.455 103.455 Deductions for faulty workmanship, loss, theft or damage. No employer may make any deduction from the wages due or earned by any employee, who is not an independent contractor, for defective or faulty workmanship, lost or stolen property or damage to property, unless the employee authorizes the employer in writing to make that deduction or unless the employer and a representative designated by the employee determine that the defective or faulty workmanship, loss, theft or damage is due to the employee's negligence, carelessness, or willful and intentional conduct, or unless the employee is found guilty or held liable in a court of competent jurisdiction by reason of that negligence, carelessness, or willful and intentional conduct. If any deduction is made or credit taken by any employer that is not in accordance with this section, the employer shall be liable for twice the amount of the deduction or credit taken in a civil action brought by the employee. Any agreement entered into between an employer and employee that is contrary to this section shall be void. In case of a disagreement between the 2 parties, the department shall be the 3rd determining party, subject to any appeal to the court. Section 111.322 (2m) applies to discharge and other discriminatory acts arising in connection with any proceeding to recover a deduction under this section.
103.455 History History: 1989 a. 228; 1997 a. 253.
103.455 Annotation The consent of the employee may only serve as a basis for a deduction if it is given in writing after the loss and before the deduction. Donovan v. Schlesner, 72 Wis. 2d 74, 240 N.W.2d 135 (1976).
103.455 Annotation Termination of an employee-at-will may violate the public policy underlying this section. Wandry v. Bull's Eye Credit Union, 129 Wis. 2d 37, 384 N.W.2d 325 (1986).
103.455 Annotation Commissions earned over and above a salary are wages under this section. The six-year statute of limitations, under s. 893.43, applicable to claims for commissions applies to the recovery of deductions from commissions under this section. A claimant need not first bring a claim before the Department of Industry, Labor and Human Relations if the employer has never given the employee an opportunity to contest the deductions. Erdman v. Jovoco, Inc., 181 Wis. 2d 736, 512 N.W.2d 487 (1994).
103.455 Annotation The exception to the at-will employment doctrine, founded on well-defined public policy found in this section, does not reach every potential deduction by an employer from an employee's wages. Batteries Plus, LLC v. Mohr, 2001 WI 80, 244 Wis. 2d 559, 628 N.W.2d 364, 99-1319.
103.455 Annotation This section necessarily creates a separate and distinct claim from simple breach of contract, and it must be pled as such. Wolnak v. Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgeons of Central Wisconsin, 2005 WI App 217, 287 Wis. 2d 560, 706 N.W.2d 667, 04-1051.
103.455 Annotation Once an employee earns wages, this section protects that employee from having the employer deduct those earned wages on charges that the employee was responsible for defective or faulty workmanship, or lost or stolen property or damaged property unless one of three things occurs. The public policy goal of the statute is to prevent the employer from arbitrarily deducting hard earned wages at its prerogative. Farady-Sultze v. Aurora Medical Center of Oshkosh, Inc., 2010 WI App 99, 327 Wis. 2d 110; 787 N.W.2d 433, 09-2429.
103.455 Annotation An employer who fired an employee after discovering that it had mistakenly overpaid her and concluding that the employee kept those overpayments to herself, did not run afoul of this statute or the public policy. The employee never earned the extra payments, and the statute does not protect her. Farady-Sultze v. Aurora Medical Center of Oshkosh, Inc., 2010 WI App 99, 327 Wis. 2d 110; 787 N.W.2d 433, 09-2429.
103.457 103.457 Listing deductions from wages. An employer shall state clearly on the employee's pay check, pay envelope, or paper accompanying the wage payment the amount of and reason for each deduction from the wages due or earned by the employee, except such miscellaneous deductions as may have been authorized by request of the individual employee for reasons personal to the employee. A reasonable coding system may be used by the employer.
103.457 History History: 1993 a. 492.
103.46 103.46 Contracts; promises to withdraw from or not to join labor, employers' or cooperative organizations are void. Every undertaking or promise, whether written or oral, express or implied, constituting or contained in any of the following is declared to be contrary to public policy and wholly void and shall not afford any basis for the granting of any legal or equitable relief by any court:
103.46(1) (1)A contract or agreement of hiring or employment between any employer and any employee or prospective employee, in which either party to the contract or agreement undertakes or promises not to join, become or remain a member of any labor organization or of any organization of employers, or in which either party to the contract or agreement undertakes or promises to withdraw from the employment relation if the party joins, becomes or remains a member of any labor organization or of any organization of employers.
103.46(2) (2)A contract or agreement for the sale of agricultural, horticultural or dairy products between a producer of those products and a distributor or purchaser of those products, in which either party to the contract or agreement undertakes or promises not to join, become or remain a member of any cooperative association organized under ch. 185 or 193 or of any trade association of the producers, distributors or purchasers of those products.
103.46 History History: 1985 a. 30 s. 42; 1993 a. 492; 1997 a. 253; 2005 a. 441.
103.465 103.465 Restrictive covenants in employment contracts. A covenant by an assistant, servant or agent not to compete with his or her employer or principal during the term of the employment or agency, or after the termination of that employment or agency, within a specified territory and during a specified time is lawful and enforceable only if the restrictions imposed are reasonably necessary for the protection of the employer or principal. Any covenant, described in this section, imposing an unreasonable restraint is illegal, void and unenforceable even as to any part of the covenant or performance that would be a reasonable restraint.
103.465 History History: 1995 a. 225; 1997 a. 253; 2015 a. 197 s. 51.
103.465 Annotation A provision in an employer's profit-sharing and retirement plan that calls for the forfeiture of benefits by employees who engage in competitive enterprises is valid and enforceable only if it meets the requirements of this section. Holsen v. Marshall & Ilsley Bank, 52 Wis. 2d 281, 190 N.W.2d 189 (1971).
103.465 Annotation A provision of a pension plan denying benefits if the retired employee accepted any employment in the same industry without limit as to time or area was void. Estate of Schroeder v. Gateway Transportation Co., 53 Wis. 2d 59, 191 N.W.2d 860 (1971).
103.465 Annotation This section, limiting the enforceability of covenants not to compete to those containing restrictions reasonably necessary for the protection of the employer or principal, incorporates pre-existing common law principals that contracts in restraint of trade are viewed with disfavor. Behnke v. Hertz Corp., 70 Wis. 2d 818, 235 N.W.2d 690 (1975).
103.465 Annotation A profit-sharing plan that provided for forfeiture in the event that a covered employee worked for a “competitive business" was construed to apply only to businesses that seek out and appeal to the same customers and offer substantially identical services. Zimmerman v. Brennan, 78 Wis. 2d 510, 254 N.W.2d 719 (1977).
103.465 Annotation The basic requirements for an enforceable restrictive covenant are that the agreement must: 1) be necessary for the protection of the employer; 2) provide a reasonable time period; 3) cover a reasonable territory; 4) not be unreasonable to the employee; and 5) not be unreasonable to the general public. Chuck Wagon Catering, Inc. v. Raduege, 88 Wis. 2d 740, 277 N.W.2d 787 (1979).
103.465 Annotation A covenant prohibiting an executive employee from contacting company clients with whom the employee had had no previous contact was not unreasonable per se. Hunter of Wisconsin, Inc. v. Hamilton, 101 Wis. 2d 460, 304 N.W.2d 752 (1981).
103.465 Annotation A covenant not to compete is not automatically voided by the presence of an unreasonable provision for liquidated damages. Whether specific restraints as to area and time are necessary to protect the employer is a question of law to be resolved on the basis of the facts. Fields Foundation, Ltd. v. Christensen, 103 Wis. 2d 465, 309 N.W.2d 125 (Ct. App. 1981).
103.465 Annotation An agreement requiring agents of an insurance company to forfeit their extended earnings if after termination they engaged in certain competitive practices was unenforceable. Streiff v. American Family Mutual Insurance Co., 118 Wis. 2d 602, 348 N.W.2d 505 (1984).
103.465 Annotation Territorial limits in a restrictive covenant need not be expressed in geographical terms. General Medical Corp. v. Kobs, 179 Wis. 2d 422, 507 N.W.2d 381 (Ct. App. 1993).
103.465 Annotation An employer is not entitled to protection against ordinary competition of the type a stranger would give. There must be special facts that render the covenant necessary for the protection of the employer's business. Wausau Medical Center, S.C. v. Asplund, 182 Wis. 2d 274, 514 N.W.2d 34 (Ct. App. 1994).
103.465 Annotation A valid covenant not to compete requires consideration. Continued employment, absent a requirement that the employment requires executing the agreement, is not consideration. NBZ, Inc. v. Pilarski, 185 Wis. 2d 827, 520 N.W.2d 93 (Ct. App. 1994).
103.465 Annotation This section sets out its own remedy. A violation does not grant an automatic right to pursue a wrongful discharge claim, but voids the covenant. Tatge v. Chambers & Owen, Inc., 210 Wis. 2d 51, 565 N.W.2d 150 (Ct. App. 1997), 95-2928.
103.465 Annotation It would be an exercise in semantics to overlook this section merely because a contract provision is labeled a non-disclosure provision rather than a covenant not to compete. This section does not create an exception to the at-will employment doctrine that would allow an employee to refuse to sign a non-disclosure or non-compete clause that the employee considers to be unreasonable. Tatge v. Chambers & Owen, Inc., 219 Wis. 2d 99, 579 N.W.2d 217 (1998), 95-2928.
103.465 Annotation Any part of an indivisible covenant, even if reasonable on its own, will not be given effect if any other part is unreasonable. A provision that an insurance agent was to have no contact with company clients without geographic restriction was overbroad, as was a provision that the agent not work for a named competitor in any capacity. Mutual Service Casualty Insurance Co. v. Brass, 2001 WI App 92, 242 Wis. 2d 733, 625 N.W.2d 648, 00-2681.
103.465 Annotation “Specified territory" in this section encompasses customer lists as well as geographic locations. A covenant not to compete based on a customer list limitation is not invalid per se. Farm Credit Services of North Central Wisconsin v. Wysocki, 2001 WI 51, 243 Wis. 2d 305, 627 N.W.2d 444, 99-1013.
103.465 Annotation A covenant not to compete cannot escape the requirement of territorial reasonableness by not including any geographical parameters. A covenant without any specified territory is void. Equity Enterprises, Inc. v. Milosch, 2001 WI App 186, 247 Wis. 2d 172, 633 N.W.2d 662, 00-2827.
103.465 Annotation A penalty provision in a contract that is invoked if there is a violation of an unreasonable covenant not to compete must be read with, and is intertwined with, the covenant. As such, it is an unreasonable covenant itself. Equity Enterprises, Inc. v. Milosch, 2001 WI App 186, 247 Wis. 2d 172, 633 N.W.2d 662, 00-2827.
103.465 Annotation An employer is not allowed to circumvent the protections under this section by restricting the employment opportunities of its employees through contracts with other employers without employee knowledge and consent. An employer cannot indirectly restrict employees in a way that it cannot do directly under this section. Heyde Cos. v. Dove Healthcare, LLC, 2002 WI 131, 258 Wis. 2d 28, 654 N.W.2d 830, 01-0863.
103.465 Annotation A provision extending the time period in a noncompete clause “by any period(s) of violations" was unreasonable and rendered the clause entirely void under this section. The effect of the extension provision made the duration of the restraint not a fixed and definite time period but a time period contingent upon outcomes the employee could not predict. H&R Block Eastern Enterprises, Inc. v. Swenson, 2008 WI App 3, 307 Wis. 2d 390, 745 N.W.2d 421, 06-1210.
2021-22 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2023 Wis. Act 93 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on April 4, 2024. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after April 4, 2024, are designated by NOTES. (Published 4-4-24)