Lawful and reasonable orders and determinations.
After the effective date of any order or determination of the commission under this section, the order or determination shall be on its face lawful and reasonable unless a court determines otherwise under s. 227.57
Judicial review of an order of the commission under par. (c) 4.
may be had by any person aggrieved in the manner prescribed in ch. 227
The commission may promulgate rules implementing the requirements under pars. (c)
This subsection applies to violations involving transmission facilities that do not transport natural gas or other hazardous materials.
Except as provided in subd. 3.
, this subsection does not apply to violations by any of the following:
A residential property owner or tenant whose violation of this section results from an excavation on property owned or leased by the residential property owner or tenant.
A person whose violation of this section results from an excavation performed while the person is engaged in an agricultural activity.
does not apply to an excavation performed by or on behalf of a person engaged in the business of performing excavations for the public.
Any person who willfully and knowingly violates this section may be required to forfeit $2,000 for each offense. Each day of continued violation constitutes a separate offense.
Whoever intentionally removes, moves, or obliterates a transmission facilities marking placed by the transmission facilities owner may be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned for not more than 30 days or both. This subsection does not apply to an excavator who removes or obliterates markings during an excavation.
Right of action.
Except as provided in sub. (3) (d) 1.
, this section shall not affect any right of action or penalty which this state or any person may have.
Right to injunction.
If any person engages in or is likely to engage in excavation inconsistent with this section and which results or is likely to result in damage to transmission facilities, the person who owns or operates the facilities may seek injunctive relief in the circuit court for the county in which the transmission facilities are located. If the transmission facilities are owned or operated by a public utility as defined in s. 196.01 (5)
, including a telecommunications carrier, as defined in s. 196.01 (8m)
, and the public utility does not seek injunctive relief, the attorney general, upon request of the commission, shall seek injunctive relief in the circuit court for the county in which the transmission facilities are located.
Sub. (2) (am) 6. and 6m. do not require an excavator to inspect the excavation; rather, they require inspection of transmission facilities exposed during the excavation. In this case, where a sewer lateral was broken during excavation, there was no evidence to indicate the presence of any markings indicating that a sewer lateral was in the way of the excavation and no facts from which it could be inferred that the sewer lateral was exposed during excavation. The excavator's duty to inspect the sewer lateral for damage and refrain from backfilling until repairs could be made was not triggered. Melchert v. Pro Electric Contractors, 2017 WI 30
, 374 Wis. 2d 439
, 892 N.W.2d 710
Wires over railroads. 182.018(1)(1)
All wires strung over any railroad prior to August 1, 1949, shall be tied to insulators fastened to double cross-arms attached to a pole at each side of the crossing. The poles if of wood shall not be less than 6 inches in diameter at the top (if of other materials at least the equivalent strength thereof), set not less than 5 feet in the ground, securely guyed, and, unless the railroad right-of-way is over 100 feet in width, shall be set not more than 100 feet apart. The cross-arms shall be attached to the poles by machine bolts, and braced by at least one iron brace from each cross-arm to the pole. All wires shall be maintained not less than 25 feet above the rails.
Any person ordered by the public service commission to change its wires so as to conform to this section failing to comply with such order within 10 days from the service thereof shall forfeit $25, and a like forfeiture for every additional 10 days of noncompliance with the order, unless a greater length of time to make such change shall be granted.
All wires strung over any railroad on or after August 1, 1949, shall be strung in such a way as to meet requirements of the provisions of the state electrical code promulgated by the public service commission. Any person stringing wires in violation of the code shall be subject to a forfeiture of not more than $100 nor less than $25. Each 10-day period, after the first day, that such violation occurs shall be a separate violation and shall subject the violator to an additional forfeiture of not less than $25 nor more than $100 for each such violation.
This section applies only to the extent that it is not contrary to or inconsistent with federal law.
Damages for nondelivery of message or power.
Persons owning or operating any telegraph, telephone or power transmission line or heat system for public purposes shall be liable for all damages occasioned by the failure or negligence of their operators, servants or employees in receiving, copying, transmitting or delivering dispatches, messages or the furnishing of power to its patrons for public purposes, including damages for mental anguish resulting directly and proximately from or occasioned by such failure or negligence in receiving, copying, transmitting or delivering dispatches or messages, but not to exceed $500 for mental anguish.
Driving park corporation.
Notwithstanding ch. 562
, any corporation formed under this chapter to establish, maintain and manage any driving park may have grounds and courses for improving and testing the speed of horses and may offer and award prizes for competition; but no racing for any bet or wager shall be allowed; and any such corporation may prevent gambling or betting of any kind, and preserve order on its grounds, and establish rules therefor, and appoint officers and agents who, for that purpose, shall have the power of constables.
History: 1987 a. 354
Any domestic corporation formed for the purpose of sharpshooting or improving in the use of firearms may acquire suitable grounds therefor, and may establish, use and maintain a rifle range for its exercises. After such grounds and range are permanently located and improved by the erection of buildings, breastworks, ramparts or otherwise, no public street shall be opened through the tract so used or occupied, unless the necessity therefor shall be first established by verdict of a jury; nor shall any suit be maintained against such corporation to restrain, enjoin or impede its exercises at the place so selected on complaint of any private individuals or parties, who shall acquire title to any property adversely affected by such exercises after such grounds and range are permanently located and improved as aforesaid.
Any domestic corporation formed to furnish water, heat, light, power, telegraph or telecommunications service or signals by electricity may, subject to the provisions of ch. 201
and by an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of its outstanding shares entitled to vote thereon, or any cooperative organized under ch. 185
to furnish water, heat, light, or power, or any cooperative organized under ch. 185
to furnish telegraph or telecommunication service to its stockholders or members only may, by a vote of a majority of a quorum of its stockholders or members present at any regular or special meeting held upon due notice as to the purpose of the meeting or when authorized by the written consent of the holders of a majority of its capital stock outstanding and entitled to vote or of a majority of its members, mortgage or trust deed any or all of the property, rights and privileges and franchises that it may then own or thereafter acquire, to secure the payment of its bonds or notes to a fixed amount or in amounts to be from time to time determined by the board of directors, and may, in and by such mortgage or deed of trust, provide for the disposal of any of its property and the substitution of other property in its place. Every such mortgage or deed of trust may be recorded in the office of the register of deeds of the county in which such corporation is located at the time of such recording, and such record shall have the same effect as if the instrument were filed in the proper office as a chattel mortgage or financing statement, and so remain until satisfied or discharged without any further affidavit, continuation statement or proceeding whatever. For this purpose the location of such corporation shall be deemed to be: as to a corporation or a cooperative association not at the time subject to s. 180.0501
, or 193.115 (1)
, the location designated in its articles as then in effect; as to a corporation subject to s. 180.0501
, the location of its registered office; and as to a cooperative association subject to s. 185.08
or 193.115 (1)
, the location of its principal office or registered agent as designated thereunder.
Any foreign corporation licensed to transact any business in this state defined in ss. 76.02 (5)
and 76.28 (1)
and duly authorized to do so in accordance with the laws of the state of incorporation and by its charter may borrow money and execute its bonds or notes therefor; and to secure the payment of such bonds or notes to a fixed amount or in amounts to be from time to time determined by the board of directors may mortgage or trust deed any or all of the property, rights, privileges and franchises that it may own or thereafter acquire in this state and may, in and by mortgage or deed of trust, provide for the disposal of any of such property and the substitution of other property in its place. Every such mortgage or deed of trust may be recorded in the office of the register of deeds of the county designated by the corporation as its registered office in this state at the time of such recording and such record shall have the same effect as if such instrument were filed in the proper office as a chattel mortgage or financing statement and so remain until satisfied or discharged without any further affidavit, continuation statement or proceeding whatever.
Any mortgage or deed of trust issued and executed by such foreign corporation and heretofore [July 6, 1957] recorded as a real estate mortgage and filed as a chattel mortgage in one or more counties in accordance with any other statute, including any supplements thereto, shall continue in full force and effect as provided by this section without any requirement for future filing of any further affidavit or proceeding and any such mortgage or deed of trust and any supplement thereto shall continue to be effective if recorded as provided in sub. (2)
Boards of trade.
An incorporated board of trade shall have the right to establish reasonable bylaws or rules for the government of the business transactions of its members, and to establish committees of reference or arbitration for the determination of differences and controversies according to the usages of other similar bodies. And any award by such committee on arbitration, made according to such bylaws and rules, may be filed in the circuit court of the county and judgment entered thereupon according to the practice and subject to review as provided in case of awards under ch. 788
History: 1979 c. 32
s. 92 (15)
Lyceum, libraries and art galleries.
Any corporation formed for the establishment and maintenance of lyceums, libraries, art galleries and the like shall have power to make bylaws for the protection of its property, and to provide fines upon its members or patrons for their infraction by way of liquidated damages; and may collect the same in a tort action.
Any corporation formed for the establishment and maintenance of schools, academies, seminaries, colleges or universities or for the cultivation and practice of music shall have power to enact bylaws for the protection of its property, and provide fines as liquidated damages upon its members and patrons for violating the bylaws, and may collect the same in tort actions, and to prescribe and regulate the courses of instruction therein, and to confer such degrees and grant such diplomas as are usually conferred by similar institutions or as shall be appropriate to the courses of instruction prescribed, except that no corporation shall operate or advertise a school that is subject to s. 440.52 (10)
without complying with the requirements of s. 440.52
. Any stockholder may transfer his or her stock to the corporation for its use; and if the written transfer so provides the stock shall be perpetually held by the board of directors with all the rights of a stockholder, including the right to vote.
Universities and colleges may unite. 182.029(1)(1)
Any university or college may receive any other university or college, upon resolution of the board of trustees of both institutions, as a branch of the former, and shall be subject to such rules, regulations, agreements and liabilities as may be agreed upon. The receiving university or college may grant such diplomas and confer such degrees as shall be appropriate to courses of instruction prescribed and pursued in such received university or college, and any such university or college so received may upon such terms as shall be agreed to by its corporate members and trustees sell, or give an option to purchase, all its property, business and effects to such receiving college or university.
Any privately supported school, academy or seminary may receive any other privately supported school, academy or seminary upon resolution of the board of trustees of both institutions, as a branch of the former, and shall be subject to such rules, regulations, agreements and liabilities as may be agreed upon. Any such privately supported school, academy or seminary so received may, upon such terms as shall be agreed to by two-thirds of its corporate members and trustees, convey all its property, business and effects to such receiving school, academy or seminary.
Corporations having church affiliations.
Whenever any corporation shall be formed for the benefit of, or be in any manner connected with, any church or religious denomination or society, its articles of organization may provide that it shall be under the supervision and control of such church, denomination or society; and that the officers or trustees be communicants thereof.
Railway equipment companies. 182.031(1)(1)
Directors; stocks; bonds.
The board of directors of any corporation organized under the laws of this state for the purpose of buying, selling, leasing or in any manner dealing in railway cars, locomotive engines or other railway equipment may classify or divide its property into series or classes, and suitably designate each such series or class; and may, by a resolution, ratified by vote of a majority of its common stock, authorize the issue of a special or a preferred stock based in whole or in part upon any such class or series, with such provision as to preference dividends out of the earnings of or profits upon the property of the series or class upon which such stock is based, and with such voting power, if any, and other such rights and provisions generally as may be defined in said resolution; and such stock may be issued in as many classes or series as the said corporation may have classes or series of equipment property, and in such amount as to each series or class as may be stated in said resolution, and the same may be issued from time to time and sold or disposed of in such manner and upon such terms as said board shall determine; and every such corporation shall have the power to issue, in like manner, its bonds or obligations for such amount and upon such terms as shall be defined by the resolution, and may secure the same by mortgage or deed of trust upon all of its property then owned or thereafter to be acquired, or upon any one or more of the classes or series of its property, or it may issue and secure both said general and special bonds or obligations in like manner.
Powers; place of business.
Every such corporation shall possess all the rights and powers conferred upon corporations by chs. 180
. It may have its principal place of business without the state. If its principal place of business is outside the state, process in actions against it may be served as provided in s. 180.1510
for service on a foreign stock corporation authorized to transact business in this state.
Title to property after dissolution. 182.104(1)(1)
Whenever any domestic corporation shall have been dissolved, owning any real property in this state, the resolution of dissolution required by s. 182.103
, 1953 stats., to be recorded with the register of deeds of the county in which such corporation is located, or in the case of any corporation which was dissolved prior to June 29, 1945, owning any interest in real estate, the affidavit of the person who was the president or the secretary of such corporation at the date of its dissolution stating the names of the persons holding stock in said corporation and the number of shares or proportional interest of said persons in the corporate property at such date, when recorded with the register of deeds of the county in which such corporation was located, shall be prima facie evidence of the title of said persons in said corporate property.
This section shall not affect the rights of creditors of the corporation, and shall not apply where any court has made disposition of the property, or where the property has been conveyed by the corporation, or distributed among the stockholders, and the conveyance is of record in the office of the register of deeds.
History: 1983 a. 192
Mutual telecommunications company; quorum; proxies.
At any meeting of the stockholders of a farmers' mutual telecommunications company, members representing 20 percent of the outstanding stock, shall constitute a quorum. Any member may hold and vote the proxy of not exceeding 3 stockholders.
History: 1985 a. 297
; 1999 a. 83
; 2009 a. 177
Mutual telecommunications company; dividends.
No dividend in excess of 7 percent of its capital shall be paid in any year by any farmers' mutual telecommunications company.
History: 1985 a. 297
; 1999 a. 83
; 2009 a. 177
Examination by attorney general and legislature.
The attorney general, whenever required by the governor, shall examine into the affairs of any corporation in this state and report in writing a detailed statement of the facts to the governor, who shall lay the same before the legislature, and for that purpose the attorney general may conduct hearings and examine the vaults, books, papers and documents belonging to such corporation or pertaining to its affairs and condition; and the legislature, or either house thereof, shall have like power at all times, and for that purpose any legislative committee may examine any person in relation to the affairs and condition of such corporation, and its vaults, safes, books, papers and documents, and compel the production of all keys, books, papers and documents by contempt proceedings.
History: 1983 a. 36
s. 96 (2)
Facsimile signatures on corporate obligations.
On any bond, note or debenture issued by a corporation organized or created under the laws of this state which is countersigned or otherwise authenticated by the signature of a trustee acting in connection with the issuance, the signatures of the officers of the corporation and its seal may be facsimiles. If any officer who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a bond, note or debenture has ceased to be such officer before such bond, note or debenture is issued, it may be issued by the corporation with the same effect as if the former officer were such officer at the date of its issue.
History: 1993 a. 482
Transfers from joint tenants.
If any security issued by a corporation, whether or not organized or created under the laws of this state, is registered in the names of 2 or more individuals who are named in the registration as joint tenants, then any bank, broker, issuer, transfer agent or purchaser for value, acting either within or without this state in connection with a sale, exchange, transfer, redemption or retirement of such security, incurs no liability by treating the interest created by the registration as a joint tenancy and, if one or more of the named individuals is deceased, incurs no liability by treating the survivor or survivors as the owner or owners unless the bank, broker, issuer, transfer agent or purchaser for value has actual knowledge of a contrary adjudication under s. 867.04
History: 1971 c. 40
; 1971 c. 307
; 1987 a. 27
Stock transfers on books, how compelled.
Whenever it is made to appear to the circuit court by affidavit or otherwise that the proper officer or agent of an issuer, in violation of the issuer's duty under s. 408.401 (1)
has neglected or refused for 2 days after proper demand to register the transfer of a security, the court immediately shall issue an order requiring the officer or agent to show cause why the officer or agent should not register the transfer of the security. The court shall in the order prescribe the manner of its service and the date, not more than 10 days after the date of the order, when the issuer's officer or agent must show cause before the court. Unless the officer or agent at that time shows to the satisfaction of the court why the transfer should not be registered, the court shall order the officer or agent to register the transfer at a time and place the court deems reasonable.
History: 1993 a. 482
Turnpike act; title.
shall be known and may be cited as the “Wisconsin Turnpike Corporation Act".
As used in ss. 182.30
, the following words and terms shall have the following meanings, unless the context shall indicate another or different meaning or intent:
“Corporation" or “turnpike corporation" means any corporation organized not for profit and without stock for the purposes and with the powers set forth hereunder.
“Cost" as applied to a turnpike project shall embrace the cost of construction, including bridges over or under existing highways and railroads, the cost of acquisition of all land, rights-of-way, property, rights, easements and interests acquired by the corporation for such construction, the cost of demolishing or removing any buildings or structures on land so acquired, including the cost of acquiring any lands to which such buildings or structures may be moved, the cost of diverting highways, interchange of highways, access roads to private property, including the cost of land or easements therefor, the cost of all machinery and equipment, financing charges, interest prior to, during and after construction, cost of traffic estimates and of engineering and legal expenses, plans, specifications, surveys, estimates of costs and revenues, other expenses, necessary or incidental to determining the feasibility or practicability of constructing any such project, administrative expenses, and such other expenses as may be necessary or incident to the construction of the project, the financing of such construction and the placing of the project in operation.
“Owner" includes all individuals, partnerships, associations, or corporations having any title or interests in any property, right, easement and interest authorized and required to be taken under authority of ss. 182.30
“Project" or “turnpike project" means any highway, express highway, superhighway or motorway constructed under the provisions of ss. 182.30
, including all bridges, tunnels, overpasses, underpasses, interchanges, entrance plazas, approaches, toll houses, service stations, weighing stations, administration, storage and other buildings and facilities which the corporation may deem necessary for the operation of the project, together with all property, rights, easements and interests which may be acquired by the corporation for the construction or the operation of the project.
“Revenues" shall mean all tolls, rentals, gifts, grants, moneys, and all other forms of property coming into the possession or under the control of the corporation by virtue of the terms and provisions hereof, except the proceeds from the sale of bonds issued under the provisions of ss. 182.30
History: 1983 a. 189
; 1993 a. 490
Turnpike corporations may be organized under ch. 181
and shall have the powers enumerated therein except as otherwise provided in ss. 182.30
Such corporation shall have the following additional powers:
To construct, maintain, repair, police and operate turnpike projects as hereinbefore defined, upon such routes as are agreed to by the department of transportation by and with the written consent of the governor; and to establish rules and regulations for the use of any such turnpike project.
To fix, devise, charge and collect tolls for transit over each turnpike project and to provide and issue special licenses authorizing transit over the turnpike project without the payment of such tolls during the period specified in the license and to fix and devise fees to be charged for such licenses.
To designate the locations, and to establish, limit and control such points of ingress and egress from each turnpike project as may be necessary or desirable in the judgment of the corporation to insure the proper operation and maintenance of such project, and to prohibit ingress to such project from any point not so designated. The corporation shall cause to be erected, at its cost, at all points of ingress and egress, large and suitable signs facing the traffic from each direction on the turnpike. Such signs shall designate the number and other designations, if any, of all highways of ingress and egress, the names of all appropriate municipalities of the state and the distance in miles to such designated municipalities.
To employ consulting engineers, superintendents, managers, and such other engineers, construction and consultant experts, attorneys, and other employees and agents as may be necessary in its judgment, and to fix their compensation; provided that all such expenses shall be payable solely from the proceeds of turnpike revenue bonds issued under the provisions of ss. 182.30
or from revenues.
State employees may be employed by the corporation with the consent of the governor and the department concerned. Such employees shall retain uninterrupted their civil service rating, sick leave, vacation and other rights under ch. 230
and after termination of their employment by the corporation shall be returned to the respective departments and agencies from which they were transferred for resumption of their regular employment.
To lease suitable parcels of land for or to construct and lease to private persons, after competitive bidding, gasoline stations, garages, stores, hotels, motels, restaurants, tourist rooming houses, and such other facilities as the corporation may deem to be necessary or desirable. The corporation shall have full power to determine the number and location of such facilities.
To receive and accept from any federal agency, subject to the approval of the governor, grants for or in aid of the construction or maintenance of any turnpike project, and to receive and accept aid, gifts or contributions from any source of either money, property, labor or other things of value, to be held, used and applied only for the purposes for which such grants and contributions may be made.
To do all acts and things necessary or proper to carry out the powers expressly or impliedly granted in ss. 182.30
Issuance of bonds. 182.34(1)(1)
The corporation is authorized to provide by resolution at one time or from time to time for issuance of turnpike revenue bonds in such amount as may be required to pay for all or part of the cost of any one or more turnpike projects. It is likewise authorized similarly to provide for the issuance of refunding bonds, to retire any bonds then outstanding at the principal amount thereof plus any redemption premium and accrued interest thereon; and to pay for all or part of the cost of future extensions, enlargements, or improvements of the project for which the bonds being refunded were issued.
The bonds to be so issued may be offered and sold by the corporation in such manner as is determined by the corporation to be most suitable and economical. The bonds shall be signed by the chairperson and vice chairperson of the corporation or by their facsimile signatures, and the official seal of the corporation shall be affixed thereto and attested by the secretary-treasurer of the corporation, and any coupons attached thereto shall bear the facsimile signature of the chairperson of the corporation. In case any officer whose signature or facsimile of whose signature appears on any bonds or coupons ceases to be such officer before the delivery of such bonds, such signature or such facsimile shall nevertheless be valid and sufficient, for all purposes the same as if that officer had remained in office until such delivery. All bonds issued under ss. 182.30
shall have and are hereby declared to have all the qualities and incidents of negotiable instruments under ch. 408
To the extent that the proceeds of any bonds sold exceed the cost of the project or projects for which such bonds were issued, those funds shall be applied to the credit of the sinking fund reserve or other reserve for such issue.
The corporation is authorized to take any action in connection with the mechanics of setting up and servicing the issuing of bonds which will provide proper and adequate protection for the purchasers, and which may be required by the circumstances then in force.
Turnpike revenue bonds and refunding bonds issued under the provisions of ss. 182.30
shall be payable solely from the funds pledged for their payment as herein authorized and shall not constitute a debt of the state or of any political subdivision of the state.
All expenses incurred by a turnpike corporation shall be payable solely from funds provided under the authority of ss. 182.30
and nothing contained in this act shall be construed to authorize a turnpike corporation to incur indebtedness or liability on behalf of or payable by the state or any political subdivision of the state.
Tolls and license fees authorized under s. 182.33 (2)
shall be so fixed and adjusted in respect of the aggregate of tolls of each turnpike project including any extension or section thereof in connection with which the bonds of any issue shall have been issued as to provide a fund sufficient, with other revenue from the turnpike project or extensions or sections thereof, if any, to do the following: