Certain cities authorized.
A city authorized to proceed under s. 74.87
may act under this section with respect to unpaid real property taxes for which it has settled with other taxing jurisdictions.
History: 1997 a. 27
; 1999 a. 32
Assignment of property contaminated by hazardous substances. 75.106(1)(a)
“Brownfield" has the meaning given in s. 238.13 (1) (a)
, except that, for purposes of this section, “brownfield" also means abandoned, idle, or underused residential facilities or sites, the expansion or redevelopment of which is adversely affected by actual or perceived environmental contamination.
“Department" means the department of natural resources.
Before a judgment is issued under s. 75.521
or a tax deed is executed under s. 75.14
, the governing body of a county may assign to a person the county's right to take judgment with respect to any parcel that is subject to foreclosure under s. 75.521
or to take a tax deed with respect to any parcel subject to s. 75.14
, if all of the following apply:
The governing body of the county provides written notice to the governing body of the city, town, or village in which the parcel is located at least 15 days before the governing body of the county meets to consider the approval of the assignment.
The governing body of the county produces a written assignment that is signed on behalf of the county, the assignee and the city, town, or village in which the parcel is located.
The assignment identifies the parcel for which a judgment or tax deed is assigned.
The parcel for which a judgment or tax deed is assigned is a brownfield.
The assignment requires an environmental assessment of the parcel and requires that the department be provided the results of that assessment before a final judgment under s. 75.521
or a tax deed under s. 75.14
related to the parcel is granted to the assignee.
The assignment requires that, if the parcel is contaminated by the discharge of a hazardous substance, as determined by the assessment under par. (e)
, and if the assignee elects to accept the judgment or deed assigned under this subsection regardless of the contamination, the assignee enter into an agreement with the department, before a final judgment is issued under s. 75.521
or a tax deed is issued under s. 75.14
related to the parcel, to clean up the parcel to the extent practicable; to minimize any harmful effects from the hazardous substance pursuant to rules the department promulgates; and to maintain and monitor the parcel pursuant to rules the department promulgates.
The assignment and an affidavit from the county treasurer that attests to the county governing body's approval of the assignment are filed with the court that is presiding over the county's foreclosure action under s. 75.521
or, in the case of a tax deed issued under s. 75.14
, with the register of deeds.
If a county assigns a judgment under sub. (2)
and the county is entitled to a final judgment in the county's foreclosure action under s. 75.521
, the court that is presiding over the foreclosure action shall grant a judgment to the assignee under sub. (2)
on the parcel that is the subject of the assignment and shall grant a separate judgment to the county for parcels that are not the subjects of an assignment. The court shall enter a judgment ordering and adjudging that the assignee is vested with an estate in fee simple absolute in the parcel that is the subject of the assignment and the court shall enter a judgment ordering and adjudging that the county is vested with an estate in fee simple absolute in all parcels that are not the subjects of an assignment. A judgment under this subsection is subject to all unpaid taxes and charges that are subsequent to the latest dated tax lien appearing on the list specified in s. 75.521 (3) (b)
and to recorded restrictions as provided by s. 75.14
An assignee who is granted a judgment under sub. (3)
shall take title to, and is the owner of, the parcel that is the subject of the assignment, except that a person who commences an action under s. 75.521 (14a)
related to the parcel shall commence the action against only the county that assigned judgment to the parcel under sub. (2)
. An assignment under sub. (2)
may provide that an assignee who is granted a judgement under sub. (3)
shall indemnify the county that makes the assignment and hold the county harmless against any loss, expense, liability, or damage that the county may incur as a result of an action under s. 75.521 (14a)
An assignee who is assigned a tax deed under sub. (2)
shall take title to, and is the owner of, the parcel that is the subject of the assignment, except that a person who commences an action under s. 75.144
related to the parcel shall commence the action against only the county that assigned the tax deed under sub. (2)
. An assignment of a tax deed under sub. (2)
may provide that an assignee shall indemnify the county that makes the assignment and hold the county harmless against any loss, expense, liability, or damage that the county may incur as a result of an action under s. 75.144
Compensation of printer.
The printer who publishes the list and notice of the time when the redemption of land subject to a tax certificate will expire shall receive compensation therefor the same as is provided for legal notices under ch. 985
, except that when the same is published under contract, as provided by law, the printer shall receive the compensation fixed by such contract and no more.
History: 1987 a. 378
Rights of persons who have an interest in mineral rights.
Notwithstanding ss. 75.14 (1)
and 75.521 (3) (am) 4.
and (13) (b)
, the failure of an owner of a fee simple interest in surface rights to pay property taxes on land does not extinguish the rights of a holder of a fee simple interest in severed mineral rights related to that land.
History: 1993 a. 391
Deed, notice of application for. 75.12(1)(1)
No tax deed shall be issued on any lot or tract of land subject to a tax certificate unless a written notice of application for tax deed shall have been served upon the owner, or one of the owners of record in the office of register of deeds of the county wherein the land is situated. If such lot or tract be improved by a dwelling house, or building used for business purposes, or a building used for agricultural purposes, and in any of said cases, such building has been actually occupied for the purpose specified for 30 days immediately prior to the date of service of the notice of application for tax deed, or if such lot or tract of land has been occupied and cultivated for agricultural purposes for 30 days within the period of 6 months immediately prior to the date of service of the notice of application for the tax deed, then notice of application for tax deed shall be served upon the occupant or one of the occupants thereof. If the records of the office of register of deeds in the county where such land is situated show that such lot or tract of land is encumbered by an unsatisfied mortgage or mortgages, such notice of application for tax deed shall be served upon at least one of the mortgagees in each such mortgage, or upon the last assignee or one of the last assignees of each such mortgage, if the assignment is recorded.
Such notice shall state the date of the tax certificate, the description of the lands involved, the amount of the delinquency and that such amount will bear interest and penalty as provided by law, and shall give notice that after the expiration of 3 months from the date of service of such notice the county will apply for a tax deed. A notice of application for a tax deed shall not be served earlier than 88 days prior to the earliest date on which the county is entitled to a deed.
The notice of application for tax deed may be served by the county treasurer or any person acting for the treasurer. The notice shall be served in the manner that service of a summons in a court of record is made, or by certified mail, with return receipt of the addressee only demanded. If notice cannot be given by use of either of the foregoing methods, the county treasurer or the treasurer's agent shall make an affidavit setting forth the effort to make service, the inability to do so, and shall file the affidavit with the county clerk. In such cases the notice shall be published by the county treasurer as a class 3 notice, under ch. 985
, in the county. The affidavit of the county treasurer or the treasurer's agent as to inability to secure service personally or by certified mail, together with proof of publication of the notice, shall be deemed completed service of the notice of application for tax deed.
Before the tax deed is issued, proof of service, or the returned certified mail receipt, or proof of publication of the notice of application for tax deed shall be filed with the officer authorized by law to issue the tax deed, and a copy of the proof of service, returned certified mail receipt, or proof of publication with evidence of the cost of publication shall be retained by the county treasurer. A person subsequently redeeming a lot or tract of land, or any part or interest therein, shall pay in addition to the amount required to redeem the lot or tract, $1.50 for each person served with the notice or, if notice is sent by certified mail, the cost of sending any notices by certified mail, plus the cost of publication of the notice. If there is no occupant of the lands as hereinbefore defined, the county treasurer shall file an affidavit to that effect with the officer authorized by law to issue the tax deed.
No tax deed shall be taken upon any notice of application therefor after one year from the last date of service of such notice.
This section shall supersede all provisions of law, including the provisions of any city charter, which are in conflict with it.
Due process requires that every owner of a recorded interest, including a mineral interest under s. 706.057, be provided written notice of an application for a tax deed. 74 Atty. Gen. 59
If a proper affidavit of service of notice of application for tax deed or a proper proof of nonoccupancy, in due form, as provided in s. 75.12
, has heretofore been filed with the county clerk, the fact that such affidavit of service of notice or affidavit of nonoccupancy or such proof has not been otherwise filed shall not be alleged or raised in any action or proceeding attacking or questioning the title of the county or its successors in interest in the land which was the subject of the notice or proof.
History: 1979 c. 89
; 1987 a. 378
Deeds, execution of; rights under; evidence. 75.14(1)(1)
If any land subject to a tax certificate shall not be redeemed the county clerk shall, after the expiration of the time prescribed by law for the redemption thereof, on presentation of the tax certificate and proof of service of notice, execute in the name of the state and of the county, as such officer thereof, under the clerk's hand and the seal of the county, to the county and its assigns, a deed of the land so remaining unredeemed, and shall acknowledge the same which shall vest in the county an absolute estate in fee simple in such land subject, however, to recorded restrictions and redemption as provided in this chapter; and such deed duly witnessed and acknowledged shall be presumptive evidence of the regularity of all the proceedings, from the valuation of the land by the assessor up to and including the execution of the deed, and may be recorded with the like effect as other conveyances of land. No deed may be issued under this section until the county board, by resolution, orders issuance of the deed.
The county clerk shall not issue a deed of any parcel of land until by carefully comparing the advertised list of the same for redemption with the tax certificate, the clerk shall find that the description of such parcel of land so to be conveyed has been correctly and fully published, in such advertised list of redemptions; and if upon such examination the county clerk shall find any error or omission in any such advertised description the clerk shall enter opposite the description of said land in the tax certificate a statement of the fact of such error or omission. If the description of said land in the tax certificate is in error, the county board shall cause such certificate to be canceled, as it relates to that parcel, and direct the county treasurer to correct the description thereof, using the procedure under s. 74.61
, and include the parcel in the tax certificate next issued under s. 74.57
. If the error or omission is in only the advertised list of redemptions, the county treasurer shall correct and readvertise the same for redemption in the next such publication and the period of redemption shall be extended thereby an additional year.
Whenever a deed in the chain of title shall contain valid and enforceable restrictions and covenants running with the land, as hereinafter defined and limited, said restrictions and covenants shall survive and be enforceable after the issuance of a tax deed to the same extent that they would be enforceable against a voluntary grantee of the owner of the title immediately prior to the delivery of the tax deed. This subsection shall apply to the usual restrictions and covenants limiting the use of property, the type, character and location of building, covenants against nuisances and what the former parties deemed to be undesirable conditions, in, upon and about the property, covenants to contribute to the cost of maintaining private roads, and other similar restrictions and covenants; but this subsection shall not protect covenants creating any debt or lien against or upon the property, or that will require the owner to expend money for any purpose, except such as may require the owner to keep the premises in a sightly condition, contribute to the cost of maintaining private roads, or to abate undesirable conditions. During the period that the county is the owner of lands so acquired it shall not be required to expend any money to keep the premises in sanitary or sightly condition or to contribute to the cost of maintaining private roads or to abate nuisances or undesirable conditions, but its successors in title shall be subject thereto and to covenants and restrictions as provided in this section. Any rights the former owner had to enforce the restrictions and covenants to which this subsection is applicable against the grantor and other parties owning property subject to such restrictions and covenants, except forfeitures, right of reentry, or reverter, shall likewise survive to the county as grantee in said tax deed and to successors and assigns.
History: 1987 a. 378
When a county accepts a tax deed, all property rights vest in fee simple in the county. A county has no statutory authority to rescind a tax deed that was lawfully issued and to thereby unilaterally impose property ownership on a third party. An attempted rescission has no effect on ownership of the property containing the landfill. Jackson County v. DNR, 2006 WI 96
, 293 Wis. 2d 497
, 717 N.W.2d 713
An income tax lien is extinguished by a tax deed under s. 75.14 or by a judgment under s. 75.521. 62 Atty. Gen. 234.
Defer taking of tax deed. 75.143(1)(a)
“Dwelling" means any building that contains one or 2 dwelling units and any land included with that building in the same entry on the tax roll.
“Dwelling unit" means a structure or that part of a structure used as a home, residence or sleeping place by one person or by 2 or more persons maintaining a common household, to the exclusion of all others.
The council of any city authorized to proceed under s. 74.87
may by ordinance direct its treasurer to defer the taking of tax deeds by the city on dwellings. The ordinance shall designate the period of time that the taking of a tax deed shall be deferred after the one-year period provided by law. The deferral period may not exceed 2 years. The deferral shall apply to those delinquent taxes and assessments incurred while the dwelling was owned and occupied by the person who owns and occupies the building at the beginning of the deferral period. If the owner ceases to occupy the dwelling during the deferral period, the city treasurer shall take a tax deed on the dwelling as soon as practicable. A city adopting an ordinance under this section may require the dwelling owner to submit proof that the owner is eligible for a deferral under this section.
History: 1981 c. 322
; 1987 a. 378
Rights of persons claiming adverse possession. 75.144(1)(1)
Titles subject to claim of ownership by adverse possession.
Subject to subs. (2)
, titles that are obtained under this chapter are subject to claims of ownership by adverse possession under s. 893.25
Claims of ownership by adverse possession barred. 75.144(2)(a)(a)
If a county obtains a survey of property complying with par. (b)
and mails notice concerning the property complying with par. (c)
and if no action concerning the property is commenced under sub. (3)
on or before the date set forth in the notice, any claim to ownership of the property by adverse possession under s. 893.25
The survey under par. (a)
shall show all of the following:
The locations of any visible structures and the dimensions of any principal buildings on the property.
Any boundary fences, apparent easements, roadways and visible encroachments on the property.
The treasurer of the county seeking to transfer title to property under this chapter shall mail the notice under par. (a)
, at least 8 weeks before the date that title to the property will be transferred, to the last-known address of each owner of an interest in other real property that has a common boundary with the property. The treasurer shall attach a list containing the legal description of the property to the notice. The notice shall appear in at least 10-point boldface type or its equivalent and shall read as follows:
NOTICE REGARDING TRANSFER
OF ADJACENT PROPERTY
TAKE NOTICE THAT ANY PERSON THAT HAS OR CLAIMS TO HAVE A RIGHT, TITLE OR INTEREST IN ANY REAL PROPERTY THAT IS DESCRIBED IN THE ATTACHED LIST IS HEREBY NOTIFIED THAT .... (name of the county) WILL TRANSFER TITLE TO THE REAL PROPERTY DESCRIBED IN THE ATTACHED LIST ON .... (date of transfer of title).
TAKE FURTHER NOTICE THAT YOU ARE RECEIVING THIS NOTICE BECAUSE YOU HAVE AN INTEREST IN REAL PROPERTY THAT BORDERS ON A PIECE OF REAL PROPERTY DESCRIBED IN THE ATTACHED LIST. THE TREASURER OF .... (name of the county) HAS A COPY OF A SURVEY OF ALL REAL PROPERTY THAT IS DESCRIBED IN THE ATTACHED LIST. THE SURVEY SHOWS THE SIZE AND LOCATION OF THE REAL PROPERTY, ITS EXTERIOR BOUNDARIES, THE LOCATION OF ANY VISIBLE STRUCTURES ON THE PROPERTY, THE DIMENSIONS OF ANY PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS ON THE PROPERTY AND ANY BOUNDARY FENCES, APPARENT EASEMENTS, ROADWAYS AND VISIBLE ENCROACHMENTS. YOU MAY WISH TO LOOK AT THE SURVEY TO MAKE SURE THAT YOU DO NOT CLAIM ANY RIGHT, TITLE OR INTEREST IN THE REAL PROPERTY. IF YOU BELIEVE THAT THE SURVEY SHOWS THAT SOME OF THE REAL PROPERTY TO BE TRANSFERRED BELONGS TO YOU, YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO ATTEMPT TO PROVE THAT THE REAL PROPERTY BELONGS TO YOU UNDER THE WISCONSIN LAW AND YOU MAY WISH TO CONSULT AN ATTORNEY.
Asserting claim of ownership by adverse possession. 75.144(3)(a)(a)
Except as provided in par. (b)
, any person claiming ownership by adverse possession under s. 893.25
of property whose title will be or has been transferred under this chapter may commence an action to establish title as provided in s. 893.25
Any person claiming ownership by adverse possession under s. 893.25
of property for which a survey has been obtained and notice mailed in compliance with sub. (2)
may commence an action to establish title as provided in s. 893.25
, but the action is barred if not commenced on or before the date of transfer of title that is set forth in the notice.
Reimbursements upon establishing title by adverse possession.
Any person who establishes title by adverse possession as provided in s. 893.25
to property whose title would have been or was transferred under this chapter shall reimburse the county for the actual costs of any survey of the property obtained under sub. (2)
and shall reimburse any former title holders for any amount of real estate taxes paid by the title holders on the property for any part of the 5 years preceding the date of entry of the judgment that establishes title by adverse possession.
History: 1985 a. 247
; 1987 a. 378
Correction of description by action.
Any tax deed issued by a county containing an incomplete, indefinite or incorrect real estate description, and which description follows that set forth in the tax certificate upon which such tax deed issued, may be corrected in an action brought in the circuit court in the same manner as actions for the reformation of instruments. Such deed so corrected shall be valid as of the date of the first issue.
History: 1987 a. 378
Deed, by whom executed; form.
All deeds of lands given under s. 75.14
shall be executed by the county clerk in the name of the state of Wisconsin and of the county as the grantors therein, and shall be substantially in the following or other equivalent form:
To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting:
Whereas, ...., treasurer of the county of ...., has deposited in the office of the county clerk of the county of ...., in the state of Wisconsin, a tax certificate of said county, whereby it appears, as the fact is, that the following described piece (or pieces) or parcel (or parcels) of land lying and being situated in the county of ...., to wit: (Here describe the lands) was (or were) included in the tax certificate issued to the county of .... on .... ...., .... (date), for the nonpayment of real property taxes, special assessments, special charges or special taxes, in the amount of .... dollars and .... cents, in the whole, which sum was the amount assessed and due and unpaid on said tract (or several tracts) of land, and whereas it further appears, as the fact is, that the owner (or owners) or claimant (or claimants) of said land has (or have) not redeemed from said certificate the lands which were included as aforesaid, and said lands continue to remain unredeemed, whereby said described lands have become forfeited and the said county is entitled to a conveyance thereof:
Now, therefore, know all by these presents that the county of ...., in said state, and the state of Wisconsin, in conformity to law, have given and hereby do give, grant and convey the tract (or several tracts) of land above described, together with the hereditaments and appurtenances, to the said county of .... and its assigns, to their sole use and benefit forever.
In testimony whereof, I, ...., the clerk of the county of ...., have executed this deed pursuant to and in virtue of the authority in me vested by the statutes of the state of Wisconsin, and for and on behalf of said state and the county of .... aforesaid, and have hereunto subscribed my name officially and affixed the seal of the said .... (name it), at .... in said county of ...., this .... day of ...., .... (year)
(Here give official designation.)
Done in presence of
The recitation in a tax deed that a repealed procedure had been followed rendered the deed void. The filing of a void tax deed does not prevent redemption under s. 75.01. There is no authority for the retroactive amendment of a void tax deed. Theige v. County of Vernon, 221 Wis. 2d 731
, 586 N.W.2d 15
(Ct. App. 1998), 97-0959
Transfer of contaminated land to a municipality. 75.17(1)(b)
“Municipality" means a city, village or town.
If a county does not take a tax deed for property that is subject to a tax certificate and that is contaminated by a hazardous substance, within 2 years after the expiration of the redemption period that is described under s. 75.14 (1)
and specified in s. 74.57 (2) (a)
and (b) (intro.)
, the county shall take a tax deed for such property upon receiving a written request to do so from the municipality in which the property is located. The county may then retain ownership of the property or, if the county does not wish to retain ownership of the property, the county shall transfer ownership of the property to the municipality, for no consideration, within 180 days after receiving the written request from the municipality.
History: 1999 a. 9
Foreclosure of certificate.
A county holding a tax certificate, instead of taking a tax deed, may foreclose the certificate by action as in a case of a mortgage on real estate at any time after 2 years from the date of the certificate, except that when costs incurred by any city or village for razing, removing and restoration of the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition are included in the amount due for taxes, the period of redemption shall be one year from the date of the certificate. The county may, in any case involving the right of redemption or interest of any minor or person adjudged mentally incompetent, after a tax deed has been issued under this chapter, foreclose the right of redemption or interest of the minor or person adjudged mentally incompetent. In such an action the minor or person adjudged mentally incompetent must appear by guardian ad litem, and the general guardian, if the person has one, shall be joined as a party defendant. All the laws and rules of practice relating to the foreclosure of mortgages, as to the persons necessary and proper to be made parties, pleading, evidence, the judgment of foreclosure and sale, the right of the county to be subrogated to the benefits of all liens upon the premises necessarily satisfied by the county in order to save the lien of the certificate, the right of the defendants or any of them to redeem the premises at any time before sale and costs and disbursements, including the necessary expenses for an abstract of title, shall, so far as they are applicable, prevail in such actions. When costs are allowed to the county, the costs, exclusive of disbursements, shall be discretionary with the court but shall not exceed the amount of the certificates at issue in the action, and the costs when allowed shall be an additional lien upon the property described in the certificates. The defendant may, in all cases within the time limited by law for answering the complaint, execute and deliver to the county a quitclaim deed of the lands described in the complaint, conveying all the right, title and interest of the defendant at the time of the commencement of the suit or may, within such time, either after having delivered the deed or without delivery, answer disclaiming any title to the lands in question at the time of the commencement of the suit, in either of which cases the county shall not recover costs against any defendant who quitclaims or who shall establish the disclaimer at the trial. The sale in such actions shall be conducted, certificates made and filed, the report made and confirmed and a deed executed and delivered in the same manner and with the same effect as in actions for foreclosure of mortgages.