Except as provided in par. (b)
, any person claiming ownership by adverse possession under s. 893.25
of property whose title will be or has been transferred under this chapter may commence an action to establish title as provided in s. 893.25
Any person claiming ownership by adverse possession under s. 893.25
of property for which a survey has been obtained and notice mailed in compliance with sub. (2)
may commence an action to establish title as provided in s. 893.25
, but the action is barred if not commenced on or before the date of transfer of title that is set forth in the notice.
Reimbursements upon establishing title by adverse possession.
Any person who establishes title by adverse possession as provided in s. 893.25
to property whose title would have been or was transferred under this chapter shall reimburse the county for the actual costs of any survey of the property obtained under sub. (2)
and shall reimburse any former title holders for any amount of real estate taxes paid by the title holders on the property for any part of the 5 years preceding the date of entry of the judgment that establishes title by adverse possession.
History: 1985 a. 247
; 1987 a. 378
Correction of description by action.
Any tax deed issued by a county containing an incomplete, indefinite or incorrect real estate description, and which description follows that set forth in the tax certificate upon which such tax deed issued, may be corrected in an action brought in the circuit court in the same manner as actions for the reformation of instruments. Such deed so corrected shall be valid as of the date of the first issue.
History: 1987 a. 378
Deed, by whom executed; form.
All deeds of lands given under s. 75.14
shall be executed by the county clerk in the name of the state of Wisconsin and of the county as the grantors therein, and shall be substantially in the following or other equivalent form:
To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting:
Whereas, ...., treasurer of the county of ...., has deposited in the office of the county clerk of the county of ...., in the state of Wisconsin, a tax certificate of said county, whereby it appears, as the fact is, that the following described piece (or pieces) or parcel (or parcels) of land lying and being situated in the county of ...., to wit: (Here describe the lands) was (or were) included in the tax certificate issued to the county of .... on .... ...., .... (date), for the nonpayment of real property taxes, special assessments, special charges or special taxes, in the amount of .... dollars and .... cents, in the whole, which sum was the amount assessed and due and unpaid on said tract (or several tracts) of land, and whereas it further appears, as the fact is, that the owner (or owners) or claimant (or claimants) of said land has (or have) not redeemed from said certificate the lands which were included as aforesaid, and said lands continue to remain unredeemed, whereby said described lands have become forfeited and the said county is entitled to a conveyance thereof:
Now, therefore, know all by these presents that the county of ...., in said state, and the state of Wisconsin, in conformity to law, have given and hereby do give, grant and convey the tract (or several tracts) of land above described, together with the hereditaments and appurtenances, to the said county of .... and its assigns, to their sole use and benefit forever.
In testimony whereof, I, ...., the clerk of the county of ...., have executed this deed pursuant to and in virtue of the authority in me vested by the statutes of the state of Wisconsin, and for and on behalf of said state and the county of .... aforesaid, and have hereunto subscribed my name officially and affixed the seal of the said .... (name it), at .... in said county of ...., this .... day of ...., .... (year)
(Here give official designation.)
Done in presence of
The recitation in a tax deed that a repealed procedure had been followed rendered the deed void. The filing of a void tax deed does not prevent redemption under s. 75.01. There is no authority for the retroactive amendment of a void tax deed. Theige v. County of Vernon, 221 Wis. 2d 731
, 586 N.W.2d 15
(Ct. App. 1998), 97-0959
Transfer of contaminated land to a municipality. 75.17(1)(b)
“Municipality" means a city, village or town.
If a county does not take a tax deed for property that is subject to a tax certificate and that is contaminated by a hazardous substance, within 2 years after the expiration of the redemption period that is described under s. 75.14 (1)
and specified in s. 74.57 (2) (a)
and (b) (intro.)
, the county shall take a tax deed for such property upon receiving a written request to do so from the municipality in which the property is located. The county may then retain ownership of the property or, if the county does not wish to retain ownership of the property, the county shall transfer ownership of the property to the municipality, for no consideration, within 180 days after receiving the written request from the municipality.
History: 1999 a. 9
Foreclosure of certificate.
A county holding a tax certificate, instead of taking a tax deed, may foreclose the certificate by action as in a case of a mortgage on real estate at any time after 2 years from the date of the certificate, except that when costs incurred by any city or village for razing, removing and restoration of the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition are included in the amount due for taxes, the period of redemption shall be one year from the date of the certificate. The county may, in any case involving the right of redemption or interest of any minor or person adjudged mentally incompetent, after a tax deed has been issued under this chapter, foreclose the right of redemption or interest of the minor or person adjudged mentally incompetent. In such an action the minor or person adjudged mentally incompetent must appear by guardian ad litem, and the general guardian, if the person has one, shall be joined as a party defendant. All the laws and rules of practice relating to the foreclosure of mortgages, as to the persons necessary and proper to be made parties, pleading, evidence, the judgment of foreclosure and sale, the right of the county to be subrogated to the benefits of all liens upon the premises necessarily satisfied by the county in order to save the lien of the certificate, the right of the defendants or any of them to redeem the premises at any time before sale and costs and disbursements, including the necessary expenses for an abstract of title, shall, so far as they are applicable, prevail in such actions. When costs are allowed to the county, the costs, exclusive of disbursements, shall be discretionary with the court but shall not exceed the amount of the certificates at issue in the action, and the costs when allowed shall be an additional lien upon the property described in the certificates. The defendant may, in all cases within the time limited by law for answering the complaint, execute and deliver to the county a quitclaim deed of the lands described in the complaint, conveying all the right, title and interest of the defendant at the time of the commencement of the suit or may, within such time, either after having delivered the deed or without delivery, answer disclaiming any title to the lands in question at the time of the commencement of the suit, in either of which cases the county shall not recover costs against any defendant who quitclaims or who shall establish the disclaimer at the trial. The sale in such actions shall be conducted, certificates made and filed, the report made and confirmed and a deed executed and delivered in the same manner and with the same effect as in actions for foreclosure of mortgages.
Extended time for beginning tax foreclosure. 75.195(1)(a)
“Dwelling" means any building that contains one or 2 dwelling units and any land included with that building in the same entry on the tax roll.
“Dwelling unit" means a structure or that part of a structure used as a home, residence or sleeping place by one person or by 2 or more persons maintaining a common household, to the exclusion of all others.
The council of any city authorized to proceed under s. 74.87
may by ordinance direct its treasurer to defer the foreclosure of tax certificates held by the city on dwellings. The ordinance shall designate the period of time that the foreclosure of tax certificates shall be deferred after the period provided by law. The deferral period may not exceed 2 years. The deferral shall apply to those delinquent taxes and assessments incurred while the dwelling was owned and occupied by the person who owns and occupies the building at the beginning of the deferral period. If the owner ceases to occupy the dwelling during the deferral period, the city treasurer shall foreclose the tax certificate on the dwelling as soon as practicable. A city adopting an ordinance under this section may require the dwelling owner to submit proof that the owner is eligible for a deferral under this section.
History: 1981 c. 322
; 1987 a. 378
Limitations on certificates and issue of deeds; life of tax certificate liens. 75.20(1)(1)
Tax certificates; when void.
Tax certificates shall be void after 11 years following December 31 of the year in which such certificates were dated.
County treasurer to cancel all outlawed taxes.
No deed shall be issued or action commenced on any tax certificate whatever after it shall have become void by virtue of the statute of limitations provided in this section. The interest in the land represented by such certificate shall terminate upon the last date upon which a deed could have been issued thereon, or an action could have been commenced thereon if no summons and complaint was served and filed prior to such date. The county treasurer shall cancel all tax certificates which have become void by limitation and shall make an entry in the treasurer's record of unredeemed property subject to a tax certificate evidencing such cancellation.
Certification of cancellation to local treasurer.
Whenever the county treasurer shall cancel a tax certificate which has become void by virtue of any statutes of limitation the county treasurer shall within 30 days thereafter in writing certify such cancellation to the proper town, city or village treasurer who shall make entry thereof in his or her records. Such cancellation need not be so certified in cases where the county has settled in full with the town, city or village.
Stay by injunction not part of limitation.
When the issuing of a deed on a tax certificate or certificates or the commencement of an action thereon shall be stayed by injunction, the time of the continuance of such injunction shall not be a part of the time hereinabove limited in this section as the life of a tax certificate.
Validity; immaterial errors.
If after the issuance of a tax certificate or conveyance to the county of any lands subject to a tax certificate and within the time hereinafter prescribed it shall be discovered that the certificate was invalid, the county board shall make an order, briefly stating the reason therefor, directing that the certificate, as it applies to the affected lands, or deed be canceled. But no certificate or conveyance shall be deemed invalid within the meaning of this section by reason of any mistake or irregularity in any of the tax proceedings not affecting the groundwork of the tax; nor shall any county be liable to pay or refund any moneys by reason of any such mistake or irregularity.
History: 1987 a. 378
A defect in the groundwork of the tax means a defect or irregularity that necessarily affects the principle of the tax and shows that it must be unjust and unequal or an illegality or irregularity that results in an inequitable burden. In order for a county to argue that it has the authority to set aside a tax deed under this section, it would be required to show the property was inequitably taxed resulting in the property owner paying more than its equitable share of the tax. Jackson County v. DNR, 2006 WI 96
, 293 Wis. 2d 497
, 717 N.W.2d 713
Canceled deeds, certificates of county clerk.
Whenever the county board shall order the cancellation of any tax deed, the county clerk shall furnish to the owner of the lands described in such deed, upon request therefor, a certificate in writing, executed under the clerk's hand and official seal, stating the fact of such cancellation, the date thereof, the description of the lands as to which such deed is canceled, the date of such deed, the date of the issuance of the tax certificate upon which such deed is based and the reason for such cancellation. Such certificate may be recorded in the office of the register of deeds of the county where the lands therein described are located, and such record shall be prima facie evidence of the facts therein stated and of the cancellation of the tax deed therein mentioned as to the lands therein described.
History: 1987 a. 378
Limitation, claims under illegal deed or certificate.
Every action brought or claim presented against any county for the recovery of any sum of money on account of any defective or void tax certificate or tax deed made or issued by any such county shall be commenced or presented during the life of such tax certificates on which such deed was issued in accordance with the limitations as provided in s. 75.20
; and whenever an action relating to the validity of a tax certificate or tax deed shall have been commenced within the time above limited and a final judgment shall not be rendered in such action until after the expiration of the time so limited, in such case an action may be commenced or claim presented on account of such certificate or deed within one year after final judgment declaring the same void.
History: 1987 a. 378
Lien of reassessed tax. 75.25(1)(1)
If the county board, on making an order directing the refunding of money on account of the invalidity of any tax certificate or tax deed, shall be satisfied that the lands described in such certificate or deed were justly taxable for such tax or some portion thereof, it shall fix the amount of such tax justly chargeable thereon on each parcel thereof, and direct the same to be assessed in the next assessment of county taxes, with interest thereon at the same rate that would have applied had the tax been collected before the tax certificate was issued, or the land been redeemed from the time when such tax was due and payable to the end of the tax levy year in which such tax will be placed on the tax roll as a reassessment; and the county clerk, in the clerk's next apportionment of county taxes, shall charge the same as a special tax to the town, city or village in which such lands are situated, specifying the particular tract of land upon which the same are to be assessed and the amount chargeable to each parcel and the year when the original tax was assessed, and certify the same to the clerk of the proper town, city or village; and the clerk receiving such certificate shall enter the same on the tax roll accordingly. The lien of any tax reassessed as provided in this section shall attach to the land as of the date when such tax as originally levied became a lien and shall continue and constitute the lien of any tax certificate issued upon such lands for such reassessed tax. Such lien shall be superior to the lien of any tax certificate issued upon such land dated after the date of the lien of such reassessed tax but prior to the date of the tax certificate issued upon such land for such reassessed tax.
Whenever the county board cancels a defective or void tax certificate or tax deed and such lands cannot be justly taxed for the item in question, the county clerk shall charge the respective town, city or village wherein such lands are situated in the clerk's next apportionment of county taxes with the amount of the refund, if any, occasioned by the invalidity of such tax certificate or tax deed. That charge shall be in the amount of the tax without interest.
History: 1987 a. 378
No action may be maintained by the grantee or anyone claiming under the grantee to recover the possession of any land or any interest in land which has been conveyed by deed for the nonpayment of taxes unless one of the following conditions is met:
The action is brought within 3 years next after the date of the execution of the deed.
The land demanded is, when conveyed, vacant and unoccupied and remains so, unless the action is brought within 3 years next after the date of the recording of the deed.
The grantee or those claiming under the grantee have been in actual, not constructive, possession of the land demanded for 3 successive years during the 5 years next after the recording of the deed.
Notwithstanding par. (a)
, if the former owner takes possession of any land conveyed by deed for the nonpayment of taxes at any time within the 3 months after the expiration of 3 years from the date of the execution of the deed, the grantee in the tax deed or those claiming under the grantee may bring and maintain an action to recover possession of the land at any time within the 3 months after the expiration of 3 years from the date of the execution of the deed.
Tax deed voided.
If the original owner, or anyone claiming under the original owner, of lands that have been conveyed by deed for the nonpayment of taxes, pays the taxes assessed against the lands continuously for the 5 years after the execution of the tax deed, without actual notice of the existence of the tax deed, the tax deed is void.
Limitation on former owner.
No action shall be maintained by the former owner or any person claiming under the former owner to recover the possession of any land or any interest therein which shall have been conveyed by deed for the nonpayment of taxes or to avoid such deed against any person claiming under such deed unless such action shall be brought within 3 years next after the recording of such deed. Whenever any such action shall be commenced upon any tax deed heretofore or hereafter issued after the expiration of 3 years from the date of the recording of such deed, such deed, if executed substantially in the form prescribed by law for the execution of tax deeds, shall be conclusive evidence of the existence and legality of all proceedings from and including the assessment of the property for taxation up to and including the execution of such deed.
History: 1991 a. 316
Application of all limitations. 75.28(1)(1)
The limitation for bringing actions under s. 75.27
or any other limitation in favor of a tax deed or a tax certificate, except in case of actual possession founded on a tax deed or as otherwise provided in this section, does not apply in the following cases:
If the taxes for the nonpayment of which the land was included in a tax certificate and the tax deed executed were paid prior to the inclusion of the land in the tax certificate.
If the land was redeemed as provided by law.
If a single tax deed only has been issued and the original owner has, before the issuance of the tax deed, paid all taxes levied against the land for the 3 years after the year for which the land was returned delinquent and sold.
The tax deed grantee or the assigns of the tax deed grantee may, at any time after the tax deed is issued and recorded, serve a notice on the owner of record of the original title stating that the grantee or assigns hold a tax deed on the land of the original owner and giving a description of the land so deeded and a reference to the document number of the tax deed and, if a volume and page number is assigned, the volume and page where the tax deed is recorded. The notice shall be served in the same manner as a summons in a court of record or by registered mail, addressed to the owner of record. Proof of service of the notice shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the county in which the lands are situated.
If the post-office address of the owner of record of the original title is unknown, the tax deed grantee, or the assigns of the tax deed grantee, may file in the office of the county clerk of the county in which the lands are situated an affidavit that he, she or they are unable, with due diligence, to make personal service of the notice or to ascertain the post-office address of the former owner. Upon filing the affidavit, the tax deed grantee, or the assigns of the tax deed grantee, may publish the notice as a class 3 notice, under ch. 985
, in the county where the land described in the tax deed is located. Proof of publication of the notice shall be filed in the office of the county clerk.
If the notice described in sub. (2)
is served and filed, or if the notice is published and proof of publication is filed, 30 days or more before the expiration of 3 years from the date of recording the tax deed, the limitation provided by s. 75.27
applies. If the notice is not so served and filed, or if the notice is not published and proof of publication is not filed, the limitation under s. 75.27
is extended until the expiration of 30 days after the day on which the notice is served and filed or published and proof filed.
In any action brought by the original owner to set aside a tax deed after the service or publication and filing of the notice described in sub. (2)
, the original owner, in case the original owner prevails, shall as a condition of relief pay to the tax deed claimant the sum of $5 for each description and the costs of serving or publishing the notice, in addition to all other costs and charges now provided for by law. The provisions of law regulating costs and charges for the service of a summons in a court of record apply to and govern the amount that may be charged for the service or publication of the notice.
Action; condition precedent.
No action or proceeding shall be maintained by the former owner or any person claiming under the former owner, based upon the invalidity of any tax certificate or tax deed due to the failure of the county treasurer to give notice under s. 74.59
, unless there is deposited with the clerk of circuit court, at the time the action is commenced under s. 801.02
, an amount of money equal to either the full amount of all delinquent taxes currently outstanding against the parcel of property which is the subject of the action, plus interest and penalty under s. 74.47
, or if the county has taken a tax deed, the full amount payable under s. 75.36 (3) (a)
. The deposited funds shall be held by the clerk of circuit court and paid out as directed by the judgment in the action or proceeding.
History: 1981 c. 390
; 1987 a. 378
Actions of ejectment, when barred. 75.29(1)(1)
Subject to sub. (2)
, no action to quiet title, to remove a cloud on title; to cancel, to annul or to set aside any tax deed; of ejectment, of trespass, of waste or for other injury to land shall be brought as to lands purporting to be conveyed by a tax deed void on its face after the expiration of 3 years from the time of the recording of the deed.
The limitation period under sub. (1)
does not apply unless each of the following occurs:
The original owner or those claiming under the original owner have failed to pay or redeem all of the taxes levied on the lands from the time of the levy of the tax for the nonpayment of which the tax deed was issued to the time of the recording of the tax deed.
The grantee in the tax deed or those claiming under the grantee in the tax deed have paid or redeemed all of the taxes levied on the lands for the 3 years after the recording of the tax deed.
History: 1991 a. 316
; 1997 a. 253
Action by original owner if deed is void, when barred.
No action may be brought by the original owner for the recovery of lands purporting to be conveyed for the nonpayment of taxes by a deed void on its face after the expiration of 5 years from the date of the recording of the tax deed, if the grantee in the tax deed has taken actual possession of the land within 2 years after the recording of the tax deed and has actually and continuously maintained possession of the lands to the end of the 5-year period from the recording of the deed.
History: 1997 a. 253
What shall constitute a possession of lands within the meaning of ss. 75.26
and the extent of such possession shall be governed by the rules prescribed for determining an adverse possession by a person claiming title founded upon a written instrument.
Taxation and sale of lands held by counties.
Real property upon which the county holds a tax certificate shall continue liable to taxation, but when a tax deed shall be issued to the county such property shall thereafter be exempt from taxation until the same is sold by the county. The county clerk shall annually, before February 1, furnish to the assessors of each town a list of the lands in such town exempt under this section. Nothing in this section shall be so construed as to apply to lands owned by minors or persons adjudged mentally incompetent.
Sale of tax-deeded lands; purchase of adjacent lands. 75.35(1)(1)
In this section “tax-deeded lands" means lands which have been acquired by a county through enforcement of the collection of delinquent taxes by tax deed, foreclosure of tax certificate, deed in lieu of tax deed, action in rem under s. 75.521
or other means.