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939.632(2)(a) (a) If the violent crime is a felony, the maximum term of imprisonment is increased by 5 years.
939.632(2)(b) (b) If the violent crime is a misdemeanor, the maximum term of imprisonment is increased by 3 months and the place of imprisonment is the county jail.
939.632(3) (3)
939.632(3)(a)(a) In addition to any other penalties that may apply to the crime under sub. (2), the court may require the person to complete 100 hours of community service work for a public agency or a nonprofit charitable organization. The court shall ensure that the defendant is provided a written statement of the terms of the community service order. Any organization or agency acting in good faith to which a defendant is assigned under an order under this paragraph has immunity from any civil liability in excess of $25,000 for acts or omissions by or impacting on the defendant.
939.632(3)(b) (b) The court shall not impose the requirement under par. (a) if the court determines that the person would pose a threat to public safety while completing the requirement.
939.632(4) (4) This section provides for the enhancement of the penalties applicable for the underlying crime. The court shall direct that the trier of fact find a special verdict as to all of the issues specified in sub. (2).
939.632 Annotation The violent crime in a school zone penalty enhancer is not unconstitutional as applied to the defendant. The legislature seeks to deter violent crime near schools in an effort to create a safety zone around schools. The 1,000-foot perimeter is a reasonable distance to try to accomplish this legislative goal. State v. Quintana, 2007 WI App 29, 299 Wis. 2d 234, 729 N.W.2d 776, 06-0499.
939.635 939.635 Increased penalty for certain crimes against children committed by a child care provider. If a person commits a violation of s. 948.02, 948.025, or 948.03 (2) or (3) against a child for whom the person was providing child care for compensation, the maximum term of imprisonment for that crime may be increased by not more than 5 years.
939.635 History History: 2011 a. 82.
939.645 939.645 Penalty; crimes committed against certain people or property.
939.645(1)(1) If a person does all of the following, the penalties for the underlying crime are increased as provided in sub. (2):
939.645(1)(a) (a) Commits a crime under chs. 939 to 948.
939.645(1)(b) (b) Intentionally selects the person against whom the crime under par. (a) is committed or selects the property that is damaged or otherwise affected by the crime under par. (a) in whole or in part because of the actor's belief or perception regarding the race, religion, color, disability, sexual orientation, national origin or ancestry of that person or the owner or occupant of that property, whether or not the actor's belief or perception was correct.
939.645(2) (2)
939.645(2)(a)(a) If the crime committed under sub. (1) is ordinarily a misdemeanor other than a Class A misdemeanor, the revised maximum fine is $10,000 and the revised maximum term of imprisonment is one year in the county jail.
939.645(2)(b) (b) If the crime committed under sub. (1) is ordinarily a Class A misdemeanor, the penalty increase under this section changes the status of the crime to a felony and the revised maximum fine is $10,000 and the revised maximum term of imprisonment is 2 years.
939.645(2)(c) (c) If the crime committed under sub. (1) is a felony, the maximum fine prescribed by law for the crime may be increased by not more than $5,000 and the maximum term of imprisonment prescribed by law for the crime may be increased by not more than 5 years.
939.645(3) (3) This section provides for the enhancement of the penalties applicable for the underlying crime. The court shall direct that the trier of fact find a special verdict as to all of the issues specified in sub. (1).
939.645(4) (4) This section does not apply to any crime if proof of race, religion, color, disability, sexual orientation, national origin or ancestry or proof of any person's perception or belief regarding another's race, religion, color, disability, sexual orientation, national origin or ancestry is required for a conviction for that crime.
939.645 History History: 1987 a. 348; 1991 a. 291; 2001 a. 109.
939.645 Annotation When two penalty enhancers are applicable to the same crime, the length of the second penalty enhancer is based on the maximum term for the base crime as extended by the first penalty enhancer. State v. Quiroz, 2002 WI App 52, 251 Wis. 2d 245, 641 N.W.2d 715, 01-1549.
939.645 Annotation The "hate crimes" law, s. 939.645, does not unconstitutionally infringe upon free speech. State v. Mitchell, 508 U.S. 476, 124 L. Ed. 2d 436 (1993); 178 Wis. 2d 597, 504 N.W.2d 610 (1993).
939.645 Annotation Hate Crimes: New Limits on the Scope of the 1st Amendment. Resler. 77 MLR 415 (1993).
939.645 Annotation Put to the Proof: Evidentiary Considerations in Wisconsin Hate Crime Prosecutions. Read. 89 MLR 453 (2005).
939.645 Annotation Talking about Hate Speech: A Rhetorical Analysis of American and Canadian Regulation of Hate Speech. Moran. 1994 WLR 1425.
939.645 Annotation Hate Crimes. Kassel. Wis. Law. Oct. 1992.
subch. V of ch. 939 SUBCHAPTER V
RIGHTS OF THE PROSECUTION
939.65 939.65 Prosecution under more than one section permitted. Except as provided in s. 948.025 (3), if an act forms the basis for a crime punishable under more than one statutory provision, prosecution may proceed under any or all such provisions.
939.65 History History: 1993 a. 227.
939.65 Annotation Due process does not require that a person know with certainty which crime, among several, the person is committing, at least until the prosecution exercises its charging discretion. Harris v. State, 78 Wis. 2d 357, 254 N.W.2d 291 (1977).
939.66 939.66 Conviction of included crime permitted. Upon prosecution for a crime, the actor may be convicted of either the crime charged or an included crime, but not both. An included crime may be any of the following:
939.66(1) (1) A crime which does not require proof of any fact in addition to those which must be proved for the crime charged.
939.66(2) (2) A crime which is a less serious type of criminal homicide than the one charged.
939.66(2m) (2m) A crime which is a less serious or equally serious type of battery than the one charged.
939.66(2p) (2p) A crime which is a less serious or equally serious type of violation under s. 948.02 than the one charged.
939.66(2r) (2r) A crime which is a less serious type of violation under s. 943.23 than the one charged.
939.66(3) (3) A crime which is the same as the crime charged except that it requires recklessness or negligence while the crime charged requires a criminal intent.
939.66(4) (4) An attempt in violation of s. 939.32 to commit the crime charged.
939.66(4m) (4m) A crime of failure to timely pay child support under s. 948.22 (3) when the crime charged is failure to pay child support for more than 120 days under s. 948.22 (2).
939.66(5) (5) The crime of attempted battery when the crime charged is sexual assault, sexual assault of a child, robbery, mayhem or aggravated battery or an attempt to commit any of them.
939.66(6) (6) A crime specified in s. 940.285 (2) (b) 4. or 5. when the crime charged is specified in s. 940.19 (2) to (6), 940.225 (1), (2) or (3) or 940.30.
939.66(6c) (6c) A crime that is a less serious type of violation under s. 940.285 than the one charged.
939.66(6e) (6e) A crime that is a less serious type of violation under s. 940.295 than the one charged.
939.66(7) (7) The crime specified in s. 940.11 (2) when the crime charged is specified in s. 940.11 (1).
939.66 Annotation To submit a lesser included offense, there must be some reasonable ground in the evidence for conviction on the lesser and acquittal on the greater. A lesser offense is permissible when the evidence requires the jury to find a disputed factual element in the charged offense that is not required for the lesser and the jury might find the disputed fact either way. State v. Melvin, 49 Wis. 2d 246, 181 N.W.2d 490 (1970).
939.66 Annotation Attempted battery can only be an included crime as to the specific offenses listed. State v. Melvin, 49 Wis. 2d 246, 181 N.W.2d 490 (1970).
939.66 Annotation A charge of possession of a pistol by a minor is not an included crime in a charge of attempted first-degree murder because it includes the element of minority that the greater crime does not. State v. Melvin, 49 Wis. 2d 246, 181 N.W.2d 490 (1970).
939.66 Annotation Disorderly conduct is not a lesser included offense of criminal damage to property. State v. Chacon, 50 Wis. 2d 73, 183 N.W.2d 84 (1971).
939.66 Annotation While attempted aggravated battery is not an included crime of aggravated battery under sub. (1), it is under sub. (4). The reduced charge does not put the defendant in double jeopardy. Dunn v. State, 55 Wis. 2d 192, 197 N.W.2d 749 (1972).
939.66 Annotation Under sub. (1), the emphasis is on the proof, not the pleading, and the "stricken word test" stated in Eastway v. State, 189 Wis. 56, is not incorporated in the statute. Martin v. State, 57 Wis. 2d 499, 204 N.W.2d 499 (1973).
939.66 Annotation Section 947.015, bomb scares, is not an included crime in s. 941.30, recklessly endangering safety. State v. Van Ark, 62 Wis. 2d 155, 215 N.W.2d 41 (1974).
939.66 Annotation When the evidence overwhelmingly showed that a shooting was intentional, failure to include negligent homicide under ss. 940.06 and 940.08 as a lesser included offenses was not error. Hayzes v. State, 64 Wis. 2d 189, 218 N.W.2d 717 (1974).
939.66 Annotation In order to justify the submission of an instruction on a lesser degree of homicide than that with which the defendant is charged, there must be a reasonable basis in the evidence for acquittal on the greater charge and for conviction on the lesser charge. Harris v. State, 68 Wis. 2d 436, 228 N.W.2d 645 (1975).
939.66 Annotation For one crime to be included in another, it must be utterly impossible to commit the greater crime without committing the lesser. Randolph v. State, 83 Wis. 2d 630, 266 N.W.2d 334 (1978).
939.66 Annotation The test under sub. (1) concerns legal, statutorily defined elements of the crime, not peculiar facts of case. State v. Verhasselt, 83 Wis. 2d 647, 266 N.W.2d 342 (1978).
939.66 Annotation The trial court erred in denying the defendant's request for the submission of a verdict of endangering safety by conduct regardless of life as a lesser included offense of attempted murder. Hawthorne v. State, 99 Wis. 2d 673, 299 N.W.2d 866 (1981).
939.66 Annotation Without clear legislative intent to the contrary, multiple punishment may not be imposed for felony-murder and the underlying felony. State v. Gordon, 111 Wis. 2d 133, 330 N.W.2d 564 (1983).
939.66 Annotation When a defendant charged with 2nd-degree murder denied firing the fatal shot, a manslaughter instruction was properly denied. State v. Sarabia, 118 Wis. 2d 655, 348 N.W.2d 527 (1984).
939.66 Annotation Under the "elements only" test, offenses that require proof of nonconsent are not lesser included offenses of offenses for which proof of nonconsent is not required. State v. Richards, 123 Wis. 2d 1, 365 N.W.2d 7 (1985).
939.66 Annotation When police confiscated a large quantity of drugs from an empty home and the next day searched the defendant upon his return home, confiscating a small quantity of the same drugs, the defendant's conviction for a lesser-included offense of possession and a greater offense of possession with intent to deliver did not violate double jeopardy. State v. Stevens, 123 Wis. 2d 303, 367 N.W.2d 788 (1985).
939.66 Annotation Reckless use of weapons under s. 941.20 (1) (a), 1983 stats., was not a lesser included offense of crime of endangering safety by conduct regardless of life while armed under ss. 939.63 (1) (a) 3. and 941.30, 1983 stats. State v. Carrington, 134 Wis. 2d 260, 397 N.W.2d 484 (1986).
939.66 Annotation The court must instruct the jury on a properly requested lesser offense even though the statute of limitations bars the court from entering a conviction on the lesser offense. State v. Muentner, 138 Wis. 2d 374, 406 N.W.2d 415 (1987).
939.66 Annotation The court of appeals may not direct the circuit court to enter a judgment of conviction for a lesser included offense when a jury verdict of guilty on a greater offense is reversed for insufficiency of evidence and the jury was not instructed on the lesser included offense. State v. Myers, 158 Wis. 2d 356, 461 N.W.2d 777 (1990).
939.66 Annotation Convictions for both first-degree murder and burglary/battery are permissible. State v. Kuntz, 160 Wis. 2d 722, 467 N.W.2d 531 (1991).
939.66 Annotation Evidence at trial may suggest to the state that an instruction on a lesser included offense is appropriate; it is unreasonable for a defendant to assume at the outset of trial that evidence may not affect the state's prosecuting position. State v. Fleming, 181 Wis. 2d 546, 510 N.W.2d 837 (Ct. App. 1993).
939.66 Annotation This section does not bar multiple convictions when homicides are "equally serious." Two Class C felonies with the same maximum penalty were equally serious although one carried additional sanctions of driver license revocation and an additional penalty assessment that the other did not. State v. Lechner, 217 Wis. 2d 392, 576 N.W.2d 912 (1998), 96-2830.
939.66 Annotation Misdemeanor battery is an included crime of felony battery, but they are not the same offense. Acquittal on felony battery charges does not prevent subsequent prosecution for misdemeanor battery. State v. Vassos, 218 Wis. 2d 330, 579 N.W.2d 35 (1998), 97-0938.
939.66 Annotation There is no rule that when a more specific crime could have been charged, the defendant loses the right to a lesser-included instruction on a more general offense. That retail theft, which was not a lesser-included offense of armed robbery, could have been charged did not prevent the giving of an instruction on theft as a lesser included offense of armed robbery. State v. Jones, 228 Wis. 2d 593, 598 N.W.2d 259 (Ct. App. 1999), 98-1681.
939.66 Annotation A lesser included offense must be both lesser and included. An offense with a heavier penalty cannot be regarded as a lesser offense than one with a lighter penalty. State v. Smits, 2001 WI App 45, 241 Wis. 2d 374, 626 N.W.2d 42, 00-1158.
939.66 Annotation When a jury returned a verdict finding the defendant guilty of both a greater and a lesser included offense, although it had been instructed that it could only find one or the other, it was not error for the court to enter judgment on the greater offense after polling the jury to confirm the result. State v. Hughes, 2001 WI App 239, 248 Wis. 2d 133, 635 N.W.2d 661, 00-3176. See also State v. Cox, 2007 WI App 38, 300 Wis. 2d 236, 730 N.W.2d 452, 06-0419.
939.66 Annotation Separate prosecutions for a carjacking that occurred on one day and operating the same car without the owner's consent on the next did not violate sub. (2r) or the constitutional protection against double jeopardy. State v. McKinnie, 2002 WI App 82, 252 Wis. 2d 172, 642 N.W.2d 617, 01-2764.
939.66 Annotation Sub. (2m) only applies to battery under s. 940.19 and not to battery by a prisoner under s. 940.20. Charging both was not multiplicitous and not a double jeopardy violation. State v. Davison, 2003 WI 89, 263 Wis. 2d 145, 666 N.W.2d 1, 01-0826.
939.66 Annotation Section 948.40 (1) and (4) (a), contributing to the delinquency of a child with death as a consequence, is not a "type of criminal homicide" included under sub. (2). It provides a more serious punishment when "death is a consequence" of its violation. In contrast, the homicide statutes in ch. 940 target those who "cause the death" of another. State v. Patterson, 2010 WI 130, 329 Wis. 2d 599, 790 N.W.2d 909, 08-1968.
939.66 Annotation Multiple Punishment in Wisconsin and the Wolske Decision: Is It Desirable to Permit Two Homicide Convictions for Causing a Single Death? 1990 WLR 553.
939.66 Note NOTE: See also notes to Art. I, sec. 8, Double Jeopardy.
subch. VI of ch. 939 SUBCHAPTER VI
RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED
939.70 939.70 Presumption of innocence and burden of proof. No provision of chs. 939 to 951 shall be construed as changing the existing law with respect to presumption of innocence or burden of proof.
939.70 History History: 1979 c. 89; 1987 a. 332 s. 64.
939.71 939.71 Limitation on the number of convictions. If an act forms the basis for a crime punishable under more than one statutory provision of this state or under a statutory provision of this state and the laws of another jurisdiction, a conviction or acquittal on the merits under one provision bars a subsequent prosecution under the other provision unless each provision requires proof of a fact for conviction which the other does not require.
939.71 Annotation Misdemeanor battery is an included crime of felony battery, but they are not the same offense. Acquittal on felony battery charges does not prevent subsequent prosecution for misdemeanor battery. State v. Vassos, 218 Wis. 2d 330, 579 N.W.2d 35 (1998), 97-0938.
939.71 Annotation This section does not bar a subsequent prosecution for an offense arising from the same acts that could not have been charged at the time of the first prosecution and thus did not bar prosecuting a defendant for 1st-degree intentional homicide for the same act which led to battery convictions when the victim died after having been in a coma for 4 years. State v. McKee, 2002 WI App 148, 256 Wis. 2d 547, 648 N.W.2d 34, 01-1966.
939.71 Annotation Under this section, a subsequent prosecution is not prohibited if each provision requires proof of a fact for conviction that the other does not require, even if the same conduct was involved in the two prosecutions. In contrast, s. 961.45 provides that if a violation of ch. 961 is a violation of a federal law or the law of another state, a conviction or acquittal under federal law or the law of another state for the same act is a bar to prosecution in this state. The difference in the 2 statutes does not violate equal protection. State v. Swinson, 2003 WI App 45, 261 Wis. 2d 633, 660 N.W.2d 12, 02-0395.
939.72 939.72 No conviction of both inchoate and completed crime. A person shall not be convicted under both:
939.72(1) (1)Section 939.30 for solicitation and s. 939.05 as a party to a crime which is the objective of the solicitation; or
939.72(2) (2)Section 939.31 for conspiracy and s. 939.05 as a party to a crime which is the objective of the conspiracy; or
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 200 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before April 18, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after April 18, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 4-18-14)