946.41(2)(b) (b) “Officer" means a peace officer or other public officer or public employee having the authority by virtue of the officer's or employee's office or employment to take another into custody.
946.41(2)(c) (c) “Soft tissue injury" means an injury that requires medical attention to a tissue that connects, supports, or surrounds other structures and organs of the body and includes tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, fibrous tissues, fat, synovial membranes, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.
946.41(2m) (2m)Whoever violates sub. (1) under all of the following circumstances is guilty of a Class H felony:
946.41(2m)(a) (a) The violator gives false information or places physical evidence with intent to mislead an officer.
946.41(2m)(b) (b) At a criminal trial, the trier of fact considers the false information or physical evidence.
946.41(2m)(c) (c) The trial results in the conviction of an innocent person.
946.41(2r) (2r)Whoever violates sub. (1) and causes substantial bodily harm or a soft tissue injury to an officer is guilty of a Class H felony.
946.41(2t) (2t)Whoever violates sub. (1) and causes great bodily harm to an officer is guilty of a Class G felony.
946.41(3) (3)Whoever by violating this section hinders, delays or prevents an officer from properly serving or executing any summons or civil process, is civilly liable to the person injured for any actual loss caused thereby and to the officer or the officer's superior for any damages adjudged against either of them by reason thereof.
946.41 Annotation The state must prove that the accused knew that the officer was acting in an official capacity and knew that the officer was acting with lawful authority when the accused allegedly resisted or obstructed the officer. State v. Lossman, 118 Wis. 2d 526, 348 N.W.2d 159 (1984).
946.41 Annotation Knowingly providing false information with intent to mislead is obstruction as a matter of law. State v. Caldwell, 154 Wis. 2d 683, 454 N.W.2d 13 (Ct. App. 1990).
946.41 Annotation No law allows officers to arrest for obstruction on a person's refusal to give his or her name. Mere silence is insufficient to constitute obstruction. Henes v. Morrissey, 194 Wis. 2d 339, 533 N.W.2d 802 (1995).
946.41 Annotation Fleeing and hiding from an officer may constitute obstructing. State v. Grobstick, 200 Wis. 2d 242, 546 N.W.2d 187 (1996), 94-1045.
946.41 Annotation There is no exculpatory denial exception under this section. The statute criminalizes all false statements knowingly made and with intent to mislead the police. The state should have sound reasons for believing that a defendant knowingly made false statements with intent to mislead the police and not out of a good-faith attempt to defend against accusations of a crime. The latter can never include the former. State v. Reed, 2005 WI 53, 280 Wis. 2d 68, 695 N.W.2d 315, 03-1781.
946.41 Annotation “Lawful authority," as that term is used in sub. (1), requires that police conduct be in compliance with both the federal and state constitutions, in addition to any applicable statutes. State v. Ferguson, 2009 WI 50, 317 Wis. 2d 586, 767 N.W.2d 187, 07-2095.
946.415 946.415 Failure to comply with officer's attempt to take person into custody.
946.415(1)(1)In this section, “officer" has the meaning given in s. 946.41 (2) (b).
946.415(2) (2)Whoever intentionally does all of the following is guilty of a Class I felony:
946.415(2)(a) (a) Refuses to comply with an officer's lawful attempt to take him or her into custody.
946.415(2)(b) (b) Retreats or remains in a building or place and, through action or threat, attempts to prevent the officer from taking him or her into custody.
946.415(2)(c) (c) While acting under pars. (a) and (b), remains or becomes armed with a dangerous weapon or threatens to use a dangerous weapon regardless of whether he or she has a dangerous weapon.
946.415 History History: 1995 a. 93; 2001 a. 109.
946.415 Annotation This section delineates one crime: a suspect's armed, physical refusal to be taken into custody. It can be committed by action or threat, which are alternative ways of threatening an officer to avoid being taken into custody. A jury instruction requiring unanimity on which occurred is not required. State v. Koeppen, 2000 WI App 121, 237 Wis. 2d 418, 614 N.W.2d 530, 99-0418.
946.42 946.42 Escape.
946.42(1)(1)In this section:
946.42(1)(a)1.1. “Custody" includes without limitation all of the following:
946.42(1)(a)1.a. a. Actual custody of an institution, including a juvenile correctional facility, as defined in s. 938.02 (10p), a secured residential care center for children and youth, as defined in s. 938.02 (15g), a juvenile detention facility, as defined in s. 938.02 (10r), a Type 2 residential care center for children and youth, as defined in s. 938.02 (19r), a facility used for the detention of persons detained under s. 980.04 (1), a facility specified in s. 980.065, or a juvenile portion of a county jail.
946.42(1)(a)1.b. b. Actual custody of a peace officer or institution guard.
946.42(1)(a)1.bm. bm. Actual custody or authorized physical control of a correctional officer.
946.42(1)(a)1.c. c. Actual custody or authorized physical control of a probationer, parolee, or person on extended supervision by the department of corrections.
946.42(1)(a)1.e. e. Constructive custody of persons placed on supervised release under ch. 980.
946.42(1)(a)1.f. f. Constructive custody of prisoners and juveniles subject to an order under s. 938.183, 938.34 (4d), (4h), or (4m), or 938.357 (4) or (5) (e) temporarily outside the institution whether for the purpose of work, school, medical care, a leave granted under s. 303.068, a temporary leave or furlough granted to a juvenile, or otherwise.
946.42(1)(a)1.g. g. Custody of the sheriff of the county to which the prisoner was transferred after conviction.
946.42(1)(a)1.h. h. Custody of a person subject to a confinement order under s. 973.09 (4).
946.42(1)(a)2. 2. “Custody" does not include the constructive custody of a probationer, parolee, or person on extended supervision by the department of corrections or a probation, extended supervision, or parole agent or, subject to s. 938.533 (3) (a), the constructive custody of a person who has been released to community supervision or aftercare supervision under ch. 938.
946.42(1)(b) (b) “Escape" means to leave in any manner without lawful permission or authority.
946.42(1)(c) (c) “Legal arrest" includes without limitation an arrest pursuant to process fair on its face notwithstanding insubstantial irregularities and also includes taking a juvenile into custody under s. 938.19.
946.42(2) (2)A person in custody who intentionally escapes from custody under any of the following circumstances is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor:
946.42(2)(a) (a) Pursuant to a legal arrest for or lawfully charged with or convicted of a violation of a statutory traffic regulation, a statutory offense for which the penalty is a forfeiture or a municipal ordinance.
946.42(2)(b) (b) Lawfully taken into custody under s. 938.19 for a violation of or lawfully alleged or adjudged under ch. 938 to have violated a statutory traffic regulation, a statutory provision for which the penalty is a forfeiture or a municipal ordinance.
946.42(2)(c) (c) Pursuant to a civil arrest or body execution.
946.42(2m) (2m)A person who is in the custody of a probation, parole, or extended supervision agent, or a correctional officer, based on an allegation or a finding that the person violated the rules or conditions of probation, parole, or extended supervision and who intentionally escapes from custody is guilty of a Class H felony.
946.42(3) (3)A person in custody who intentionally escapes from custody under any of the following circumstances is guilty of a Class H felony:
946.42(3)(a) (a) Pursuant to a legal arrest for, lawfully charged with or convicted of or sentenced for a crime.
946.42(3)(b) (b) Lawfully taken into custody under s. 938.19 for or lawfully alleged or adjudged under ch. 938 to be delinquent on the basis of a violation of a criminal law.
946.42(3)(c) (c) Subject to a disposition under s. 938.34 (4d), (4h), or (4m), to a placement under s. 938.357 (4) or 938.533 (3) (a), or to community supervision or aftercare revocation under s. 938.357 (5) (e).
946.42(3)(e) (e) In custody under the circumstances described in sub. (2) and leaves the state to avoid apprehension. Leaving the state and failing to return is prima facie evidence of intent to avoid apprehension.
946.42(3)(f) (f) Pursuant to a legal arrest as a fugitive from justice in another state.
946.42(3)(g) (g) Committed to the department of health services under ch. 971 or 975.
946.42(3m) (3m)A person who intentionally escapes from custody under any of the following circumstances is guilty of a Class F felony:
946.42(3m)(a) (a) While subject to a detention order under s. 980.04 (1) or a custody order under s. 980.04 (3).
946.42(3m)(b) (b) While subject to an order issued under s. 980.06 committing the person to custody of the department of health services, regardless of whether the person is placed in institutional care or on supervised release.
946.42(4) (4)If a person is convicted of an escape under this section, the maximum term of imprisonment for the escape may be increased by not more than 5 years if an individual who had custody of the person who escaped is injured during the course of the escape.
946.42 Annotation There is no denial of equal protection in the punishment under sub. (3) (d) [now (3) (g)] of persons committed under the sex crimes law when persons civilly committed are not subject to the same statute. State v. Neutz, 69 Wis. 2d 292, 230 N.W.2d 806 (1975).
946.42 Annotation A defendant's escape under the work-release statute was an escape under s. 946.42 (3). Brown v. State, 73 Wis. 2d 703, 245 N.W.2d 670 (1976).
946.42 Annotation The sentence for an escape conviction may be consecutive to a sex crime commitment. State v. Kruse, 101 Wis. 2d 387, 305 N.W.2d 85 (1981).
946.42 Annotation It is not necessary to leave the physical boundaries of an institution to complete an act of escape. State v. Sugden, 143 Wis. 2d 728, 422 N.W.2d 624 (1988).
946.42 Annotation Under sub. (5) (b) [now sub. (1) (a)], an individual is “in custody" once freedom of movement is restricted; one lawfully arrested may not leave without permission. State v. Adams, 152 Wis. 2d 68, 447 N.W.2d 90 (Ct. App. 1989).
946.42 Annotation A person can be “in custody" without being under “legal arrest," but a person cannot be under “legal arrest" without being “in custody." State v. Hoffman, 163 Wis. 2d 752, 472 N.W.2d 558 (Ct. App. 1991).
946.42 Annotation A traffic regulation under sub. (2) (a) does not include any offense punishable as a crime. State v. Beasley, 165 Wis. 2d 97, 477 N.W.2d 57 (Ct. App. 1991).
946.42 Annotation Upon conviction of a crime, a person is in custody regardless of physical control. Leaving without the court's granting release is escape. State v. Scott, 191 Wis. 2d 146, 528 N.W.2d 46 (Ct. App. 1995).
946.42 Annotation As used in sub. (1) (a), “medical care" includes treatment at drug and alcohol rehabilitation centers. State v. Sevelin, 204 Wis. 2d 127, 554 N.W.2d 521 (Ct. App. 1996), 96-0729.
946.42 Annotation Failure to return to jail while on work release from incarceration for failure to pay a municipal forfeiture is escape under this section. State v. Smith, 214 Wis. 2d 541, 571 N.W.2d 472 (Ct. App. 1997), 97-0266.
946.42 Annotation Custody under sub. (1) (a) does not include the custody of a parole or probation officer. State v. Zimmerman, 2001 WI App 238, 248 Wis. 2d 370, 635 N.W.2d 864, 00-3173.
946.42 Annotation Detention at the Wisconsin Resource Center while awaiting evaluation and trial on a petition for commitment as a sexually violent person under Chapter 980 does not subject the detainee to escape charges under this section. Thorson v. Schwarz, 2004 WI 96, 274 Wis. 2d 1, 681 N.W.2d 914, 02-3380.
946.42 Annotation Testimony adduced at trial may establish the element of being sentenced for a crime, regardless of whether the jury actually sees the certified judgment of conviction. State v. Hughes, 2011 WI App 87, 334 Wis. 2d 445, 799 N.W.2d 504, 10-1322.
946.425 946.425 Failure to report to jail.
946.425(1)(1)Any person who is subject to a series of periods of imprisonment under s. 973.03 (5) (b) and who intentionally fails to report to the county jail as required under the sentence is guilty of a Class H felony.
946.425(1m) (1m)
946.425(1m)(a)(a) Any person who receives a stay of execution of a sentence of imprisonment of less than 10 days to a county jail under s. 973.15 (8) (a) and who intentionally fails to report to the county jail as required under the sentence is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
946.425(1m)(b) (b) Any person who receives a stay of execution of a sentence of imprisonment of 10 or more days to a county jail under s. 973.15 (8) (a) and who intentionally fails to report to the county jail as required under the sentence is guilty of a Class H felony.
946.425(1r) (1r)
946.425(1r)(a)(a) Any person who is subject to a confinement order under s. 973.09 (4) as the result of a conviction for a misdemeanor and who intentionally fails to report to the county jail or house of correction as required under the order is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
946.425(1r)(b) (b) Any person who is subject to a confinement order under s. 973.09 (4) as the result of a conviction for a felony and who intentionally fails to report to the county jail or house of correction as required under the order is guilty of a Class H felony.
946.425(3) (3)A prosecutor may not charge a person with violating both subs. (1) and (1m) regarding the same incident or occurrence.
946.425 History History: 1989 a. 85; 1993 a. 273; 1995 a. 154; 2001 a. 109.
946.43 946.43 Assaults by prisoners.
946.43(1m)(1m)Any prisoner confined to a state prison or other state, county or municipal detention facility who intentionally does any of the following is guilty of a Class F felony:
946.43(1m)(a) (a) Places an officer, employee, visitor or another inmate of such prison or institution in apprehension of an immediate battery likely to cause death or great bodily harm; or
946.43(1m)(b) (b) Confines or restrains an officer, employee, visitor or another inmate of such prison or institution without the person's consent.
946.43(2m) (2m)
946.43(2m)(a)(a) Any prisoner confined to a state prison or other state, county or municipal detention facility who throws or expels blood, semen, vomit, saliva, urine, feces or other bodily substance at or toward an officer, employee or visitor of the prison or facility or another prisoner of the prison or facility under all of the following circumstances is guilty of a Class I felony:
946.43(2m)(a)1. 1. The prisoner throws or expels the blood, semen, vomit, saliva, urine, feces or other bodily substance with the intent that it come into contact with the officer, employee, visitor or other prisoner.
946.43(2m)(a)2. 2. The prisoner throws or expels the blood, semen, vomit, saliva, urine, feces or other bodily substance with the intent either to cause bodily harm to the officer, employee, visitor or other prisoner or to abuse, harass, offend, intimidate or frighten the officer, employee, visitor or other prisoner.
946.43(2m)(a)3. 3. The officer, employee, visitor or other prisoner does not consent to the blood, semen, vomit, saliva, urine, feces or other bodily substance being thrown or expelled at or toward him or her.
946.43(2m)(b) (b) A court shall impose a sentence for a violation of par. (a) consecutive to any sentence previously imposed or which may be imposed for any crime or offense for which the person was in custody when he or she committed the violation of par. (a).
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2015-16 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2017 Wis. Act 367 and all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders effective on or before June 13, 2018. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after June 13, 2018 are designated by NOTES. (Published 6-13-18)