946.13(12)(a)(a) In this subsection:
946.13(12)(a)1. 1. “Research company" means an entity engaged in commercial or nonprofit activity that is related to research conducted by an employee or officer of the system or to a product of such research.
946.13(12)(a)2. 2. “System” means the University of Wisconsin System.
946.13(12)(b) (b) Subsection (1) does not apply to a contract between a research company and the system or any institution or college campus within the system for purchase of goods or services, including research, if the interest that a system employee or officer has in the research company has been evaluated and addressed in a management plan issued by the individual or body responsible for evaluating and managing potential conflicts of interest and the management plan complies with the policy adopted under par. (d).
946.13(12)(d) (d) The board shall adopt a policy specifying the contents required for a management plan under par. (b).
946.13 Annotation A county board member did not violate sub. (1) by accepting a job as airport manager while he was serving as a county board member for a county that was co-owner of the airport when he was appointed pursuant to advice and approval of the county corporation counsel. State v. Davis, 63 Wis. 2d 75, 216 N.W.2d 31 (1974).
946.13 Annotation Sub. (1) (b) is a strict liability offense. It does not include the element of corrupt motive. State v. Stoehr, 134 Wis. 2d 66, 396 N.W.2d 177 (1986).
946.13 Annotation The defendant could not have had a pecuniary interest in, or have negotiated in the defendant's private capacity for, a position that had not yet been posted. State v. Venema, 2002 WI App 202, 257 Wis. 2d 491, 650 N.W.2d 898, 01-2502.
946.13 Annotation A county board member employed by an engineering and survey firm may have a possible conflict of interest in public contracts. 60 Atty. Gen. 98.
946.13 Annotation A member of the Wisconsin board of vocational, technical, and adult education [now technical college] may not bid on and contract for the construction of a building project for a vocational-technical district that would entail expenditures exceeding $2,000 in any year, when availability of federal funds for use on such project is subject to the member's approval as a member of the board. 60 Atty. Gen. 310.
946.13 Annotation Discussing conflicts arising from election of a school principal to the office of alderperson. 60 Atty. Gen. 367.
946.13 Annotation Appointment of counsel for indigents involves a public contract. 62 Atty. Gen. 118.
946.13 Annotation A county supervisor who is a pharmacist probably does not violate this section in furnishing prescription services to medicaid patients when the state is solely liable for payment. 64 Atty. Gen. 108.
946.13 Annotation The marital property law does not change the applicability of this section to a member of a governmental body when that body employs the member's spouse. 76 Atty. Gen. 15.
946.13 Annotation This section applies to county board or department purchases aggregating more than $5,000 from a county supervisor-owned business. 76 Atty. Gen. 178.
946.13 Annotation When the village board administers a community development block grant program, a member of the village board would violate this section if the board member obtained a loan in excess of $5,000 under the program. Acting as a private contractor, the board member would violate sub. (1) if the board member contracted to perform the construction work for a third person who obtained a loan under the program. 76 Atty. Gen. 278.
946.13 Annotation Sub. (1) (a) may be violated by members of the Private Industry Councils when private or public entities of which they are executives, directors, or board members receive benefits under the Job Training Partnership Act. 77 Atty. Gen. 306.
946.13 Annotation A municipality's zoning decision is not a contract under sub. (1) (a), and therefore the statute does not apply to an official's participation in a zoning decision. OAG 9-14.
946.14 946.14 Purchasing claims at less than full value. Any public officer or public employee who in a private capacity directly or indirectly intentionally purchases for less than full value or discounts any claim held by another against the state or a political subdivision thereof or against any public fund is guilty of a Class I felony.
946.14 History History: 1977 c. 173; 2001 a. 109.
946.16 946.16 Judicial officer collecting claims. Any judicial officer who causes to be brought in a court over which the officer presides any action or proceeding upon a claim placed with the officer as agent or attorney for collection is guilty of a Class B misdemeanor.
946.16 History History: 1977 c. 173.
946.17 946.17 Corrupt means to influence legislation; disclosure of interest. Any person who gives or agrees or offers to give anything of value to any person, for the service of such person or of any other person in procuring the passage or defeat of any measure before the legislature or before either house or any committee thereof, upon the contingency or condition of the passage or defeat of the measure, or who receives, or agrees to receive anything of value for such service, upon any such contingency or condition, or who, having a pecuniary or other interest, or acting as the agent or attorney of any person in procuring or attempting to procure the passage or defeat of any measure before the legislature or before either house or any committee thereof, attempts in any manner to influence any member of the legislature for or against the measure, without first making known to the member the real and true interest he or she has in the measure, either personally or as such agent or attorney, is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
946.17 History History: 1977 c. 278 s. 1; Stats. 1977 s. 946.17; 1993 a. 213.
946.18 946.18 Misconduct sections apply to all public officers. Sections 946.10 to 946.17 apply to public officers, whether legally constituted or exercising powers as if legally constituted.
946.18 History History: 1977 c. 278; 1979 c. 110.
subch. III of ch. 946 SUBCHAPTER III
946.31 946.31 Perjury.
946.31(1)(1)Whoever under oath or affirmation orally makes a false material statement which the person does not believe to be true, in any matter, cause, action or proceeding, before any of the following, whether legally constituted or exercising powers as if legally constituted, is guilty of a Class H felony:
946.31(1)(a) (a) A court;
946.31(1)(b) (b) A magistrate;
946.31(1)(c) (c) A judge, referee or court commissioner;
946.31(1)(d) (d) An administrative agency or arbitrator authorized by statute to determine issues of fact;
946.31(1)(e) (e) A notary public while taking testimony for use in an action or proceeding pending in court;
946.31(1)(f) (f) An officer authorized to conduct inquests of the dead;
946.31(1)(g) (g) A grand jury;
946.31(1)(h) (h) A legislative body or committee.
946.31(2) (2)It is not a defense to a prosecution under this section that the perjured testimony was corrected or retracted.
946.31 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1979 c. 110; 2001 a. 109.
946.31 Annotation An arbitrator selected from a list provided by the Wisconsin Employment Relations Commission is authorized by s. 111.10 to arbitrate as provided in ch. 298 [now ch. 788] and so is “authorized by statute" within the meaning of sub. (1) (d). Layton School of Art & Design v. WERC, 82 Wis. 2d 324, 262 N.W.2d 218 (1978).
946.31 Annotation Perjury consists of a false statement that the defendant knew was false, was made under oath in a proceeding before a judge, and was material to the proceeding. Materiality is determined by whether the trial court could have relied on the testimony in making a decision, not on whether it actually did. State v. Munz, 198 Wis. 2d 379, 541 N.W.2d 821 (Ct. App. 1995), 95-0635.
946.31 Annotation A defendant may be charged with multiple counts of perjury based on testimony given in the same proceeding when each charge requires proof of an additional fact that the others do not. State v. Warren, 229 Wis. 2d 172, 599 N.W.2d 431 (Ct. App. 1999), 99-0129.
946.31 Annotation Issue preclusion does not bar the prosecution for perjury of a defendant who was tried and acquitted on a single issue when newly discovered evidence suggests that the defendant falsely testified on the issue. The state must show that: 1) the evidence came to the state's attention after trial; 2) the state was not negligent in failing to discover the evidence; 3) the evidence is material to the issue; and 4) the evidence is not merely cumulative. State v. Canon, 2001 WI 11, 241 Wis. 2d 164, 622 N.W.2d 270, 98-3519.
946.31 Annotation Perjury Prosecutions After Acquittals: The Evils of False Testimony Balanced Against the Sanctity of Determinations of Innocence. Shellenberger. 71 MLR 703 (1988).
946.32 946.32 False swearing.
946.32(1)(1)Whoever does either of the following is guilty of a Class H felony:
946.32(1)(a) (a) Under oath or affirmation or upon signing a statement pursuant to s. 887.015 makes or subscribes a false statement which he or she does not believe is true, when such oath, affirmation, or statement is authorized or required by law or is required by any public officer or governmental agency as a prerequisite to such officer or agency taking some official action.
946.32(1)(b) (b) Makes or subscribes 2 inconsistent statements under oath or affirmation or upon signing a statement pursuant to s. 887.015 in regard to any matter respecting which an oath, affirmation, or statement is, in each case, authorized or required by law or required by any public officer or governmental agency as a prerequisite to such officer or agency taking some official action, under circumstances which demonstrate that the witness or subscriber knew at least one of the statements to be false when made. The period of limitations within which prosecution may be commenced runs from the time of the first statement.
946.32(2) (2)Whoever under oath or affirmation or upon signing a statement pursuant to s. 887.015 makes or subscribes a false statement which the person does not believe is true is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
946.32 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1993 a. 486; 2001 a. 109; 2009 a. 166.
946.32 Annotation This section applies to oral statements. The mere fact that a statement is permitted by law does not mean it is “authorized by law" within meaning of sub. (1) (a). State v. Devitt, 82 Wis. 2d 262, 262 N.W.2d 73 (1978).
946.32 Annotation The reference to the statute of limitations in sub. (1) (b) does not make it an element of the offense. The statute of limitations is an affirmative defense and is subject to tolling under s. 939.74. State v. Slaughter, 200 Wis. 2d 190, 546 N.W.2d 490 (Ct. App. 1996), 95-0141.
946.32 Annotation What is to be “authorized or required" under sub. (1) (b) is the oath itself, not the matter respecting which the oath is taken. State v. Slaughter, 200 Wis. 2d 190, 546 N.W.2d 490 (Ct. App. 1996), 95-0141.
subch. IV of ch. 946 SUBCHAPTER IV
946.40 946.40 Refusing to aid officer.
946.40(1)(1)Whoever, without reasonable excuse, refuses or fails, upon command, to aid any person known by the person to be a peace officer is guilty of a Class C misdemeanor.
946.40(2) (2)This section does not apply if under the circumstances the officer was not authorized to command such assistance.
946.40 History History: 1977 c. 173.
946.40 Annotation Under s. 343.305, hospital personnel must administer a blood alcohol test and report the results at the request of an officer, subject to the penalty under this section. 68 Atty. Gen. 209.
946.40 Annotation In certain circumstances, a peace officer may command medical staff at a hospital or clinic to gather evidence from a sexual assault victim. 72 Atty. Gen. 107.
946.41 946.41 Resisting or obstructing officer.
946.41(1)(1)Except as provided in subs. (2m) and (2r), whoever knowingly resists or obstructs an officer while such officer is doing any act in an official capacity and with lawful authority is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
946.41(2) (2)In this section:
946.41(2)(a) (a) “Obstructs" includes without limitation knowingly giving false information to the officer or knowingly placing physical evidence with intent to mislead the officer in the performance of his or her duty including the service of any summons or civil process.
946.41(2)(b) (b) “Officer" means a peace officer or other public officer or public employee having the authority by virtue of the officer's or employee's office or employment to take another into custody.
946.41(2)(c) (c) “Soft tissue injury" means an injury that requires medical attention to a tissue that connects, supports, or surrounds other structures and organs of the body and includes tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, fibrous tissues, fat, synovial membranes, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.
946.41(2m) (2m)Whoever violates sub. (1) under all of the following circumstances is guilty of a Class H felony:
946.41(2m)(a) (a) The violator gives false information or places physical evidence with intent to mislead an officer.
946.41(2m)(b) (b) At a criminal trial, the trier of fact considers the false information or physical evidence.
946.41(2m)(c) (c) The trial results in the conviction of an innocent person.
946.41(2r) (2r)Whoever violates sub. (1) and causes substantial bodily harm or a soft tissue injury to an officer is guilty of a Class H felony.
946.41(2t) (2t)Whoever violates sub. (1) and causes great bodily harm to an officer is guilty of a Class G felony.
946.41(3) (3)Whoever by violating this section hinders, delays or prevents an officer from properly serving or executing any summons or civil process, is civilly liable to the person injured for any actual loss caused thereby and to the officer or the officer's superior for any damages adjudged against either of them by reason thereof.
946.41 Annotation The state must prove that the accused knew that the officer was acting in an official capacity and knew that the officer was acting with lawful authority when the accused allegedly resisted or obstructed the officer. State v. Lossman, 118 Wis. 2d 526, 348 N.W.2d 159 (1984).
946.41 Annotation Knowingly providing false information with intent to mislead is obstruction as a matter of law. State v. Caldwell, 154 Wis. 2d 683, 454 N.W.2d 13 (Ct. App. 1990).
946.41 Annotation No law allows officers to arrest for obstruction on a person's refusal to give the person's name. Mere silence is insufficient to constitute obstruction. Henes v. Morrissey, 194 Wis. 2d 338, 533 N.W.2d 802 (1995).
946.41 Annotation Fleeing and hiding from an officer may constitute obstructing. State v. Grobstick, 200 Wis. 2d 242, 546 N.W.2d 187 (Ct. App. 1996), 94-1045.
946.41 Annotation There is no exculpatory denial exception under this section. The statute criminalizes all false statements knowingly made and with intent to mislead the police. The state should have sound reasons for believing that a defendant knowingly made false statements with intent to mislead the police and not out of a good-faith attempt to defend against accusations of a crime. The latter can never include the former. State v. Reed, 2005 WI 53, 280 Wis. 2d 68, 695 N.W.2d 315, 03-1781.
946.41 Annotation “Lawful authority," as that term is used in sub. (1), requires that police conduct be in compliance with both the federal and state constitutions, in addition to any applicable statutes. State v. Ferguson, 2009 WI 50, 317 Wis. 2d 586, 767 N.W.2d 187, 07-2095.
946.415 946.415 Failure to comply with officer's attempt to take person into custody.
946.415(1)(1)In this section, “officer" has the meaning given in s. 946.41 (2) (b).
946.415(2) (2)Whoever intentionally does all of the following is guilty of a Class I felony:
946.415(2)(a) (a) Refuses to comply with an officer's lawful attempt to take him or her into custody.
946.415(2)(b) (b) Retreats or remains in a building or place and, through action or threat, attempts to prevent the officer from taking him or her into custody.
946.415(2)(c) (c) While acting under pars. (a) and (b), remains or becomes armed with a dangerous weapon or threatens to use a dangerous weapon regardless of whether he or she has a dangerous weapon.
2021-22 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2023 Wis. Act 272 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on July 9, 2024. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after July 9, 2024, are designated by NOTES. (Published 7-9-24)