This section does not apply to:
A person operating a motor vehicle to cross a stream by use of a bridge, culvert, ford or similar structure if the crossing is in the most direct manner practical, if the crossing is from a highway or private road or from an established trail and if the person operates the motor vehicle at the minimum speed required to maintain controlled forward motion of the motor vehicle.
A person operating a motor vehicle while the person is engaged in agricultural use, as defined under s. 91.01 (2)
The department or any agent of the department operating a motor vehicle while the person is engaged in activities authorized by the department.
Activities for which a permit is issued.
A person or agent of a person who is engaged in activities as authorized under a general or individual permit issued under this subchapter or as authorized under a contract entered into under this subchapter.
A person operating an amphibious motor vehicle registered as a boat with the department if the amphibious vehicle enters the water at a boat launch or a ford.
A person operating a motor vehicle to launch or load a boat, canoe or other watercraft.
On frozen waters.
A person operating a motor vehicle on the surface of any navigable waters which are frozen.
Access to frozen waters.
A person operating a motor vehicle to cross the bed or banks of a navigable water in order to reach the surface of any navigable waters which are frozen if the crossing is in the most direct manner practical, if the crossing is from a highway or private road or from an established trail and if the person operates the motor vehicle at the minimum speed required to maintain controlled forward motion of the motor vehicle.
A person operating a motor vehicle in compliance with sub. (3m)
Controlling Phragmites in outlying waters.
A person may operate a motor vehicle in outlying waters if the operation meets all of the following requirements:
The operation of the motor vehicle is for the purpose of mowing or applying a herbicide for the purpose of controlling Phragmites australis.
The operation of the motor vehicle occurs only on the exposed bed of the outlying water.
The operation of the motor vehicle occurs between the period beginning on July 1 of a given year and ending on March 15 of the following year.
The mowing or application of the herbicide interferes with or destroys native species only to the degree that is necessary to control the invasive species Phragmites australis.
A person who violates this section shall forfeit $50 for the first offense and shall forfeit not more than $100 upon conviction of the same offense a 2nd or subsequent time within one year.
Inspections for certain exemptions and permitted activities. 30.291(1)(1)
For purposes of determining whether an exemption is appropriate under s. 30.12 (1k)
, 30.123 (6m)
, or 30.20 (1m)
, whether a general permit is appropriate under s. 30.206 (3)
, or whether authorization to proceed under a general permit is appropriate under s. 30.206 (3r)
, any employee or other representative of the department, upon presenting his or her credentials, may enter the site and inspect any property on the site.
The department shall provide reasonable advance notice, before entering the site and inspecting the property.
If the owner of the site refuses to give consent for an entry and inspection to determine whether authorization to proceed under a general permit is appropriate under s. 30.206 (3r)
, the department shall deny authorization to proceed under the general permit and shall allow an application to be submitted for an individual permit for the activity.
History: 2003 a. 118
; 2007 a. 204
Parties to a violation. 30.292(1)(1)
Whoever is concerned in the commission of a violation of this chapter for which a forfeiture is imposed is a principal and may be charged with and convicted of the violation although he or she did not directly commit it and although the person who directly committed it has not been convicted of the violation.
A person is concerned in the commission of the violation if the person does any of the following:
Aids and abets the commission of the violation.
Is a party to a conspiracy with another to commit the violation or advises, hires, counsels or otherwise procures any person to commit it.
History: 1987 a. 374
Every violation of this chapter is declared to be a public nuisance and may be prohibited by injunction and may be abated by legal action brought by any person.
History: 1987 a. 374
A citizen may bring suit under this section, pursuant to the public trust doctrine, directly against a private party for abatement of a public nuisance when the citizen believes that the department of natural resources has inadequately regulated the private party. When a municipality is a defendant, filing a notice of claim under s. 893.80 (1) (b) is not required if an injunction is sought under this section, whether or not the injunction will be directed against the municipality. Gillen v. City of Neenah, 219 Wis. 2d 806
, 580 N.W.2d 628
Any person who violates any provision of ss. 30.12
for which a penalty is not provided under the applicable section or by sub. (2)
shall forfeit not less than $100 nor more than $10,000 for the first offense and shall forfeit not less than $500 nor more than $10,000 upon conviction of the same offense a 2nd or subsequent time.
Any person who violates s. 30.18 (2) (a) 1.
or 30.195 (1)
shall forfeit not less than $500 nor more than $10,000 for the first offense and shall forfeit not less than $1,000 nor more than $10,000 upon conviction of the same offense a 2nd or subsequent time.
Any person who violates a general permit under s. 30.206
shall forfeit not less than $10 nor more than $500 for the first offense and shall forfeit not less than $50 nor more than $500 upon conviction of the same offense a 2nd or subsequent time.
A violation of a permit, contract or order issued under this chapter is a violation of the statute under which the permit, contract or order was issued.
In addition to the forfeitures specified under subs. (1)
, the court may order the defendant to perform or refrain from performing such acts as may be necessary to fully protect and effectuate the public interest in navigable waters. The court may order abatement of a nuisance, restoration of a natural resource or other appropriate action designed to eliminate or minimize any environmental damage caused by the defendant.
DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF HARBORS
Municipal authority to make harbor improvements.
Every municipality having navigable waters within or adjoining its boundaries may exercise the following powers:
By proper filling or excavating or dredging and docking, create or improve any inner or outer harbor and such turning basins, slips, canals and other waterways within its boundaries as it determines are necessary.
Repairs and alterations.
Keep in repair and from time to time alter, extend, enlarge or discontinue any improvement mentioned in sub. (1)
Dock walls and shore protection walls. 30.30(3)(a)
Either by itself or in conjunction with another municipality, construct, maintain or repair suitable dock walls or shore protection walls along the shore of any waterway adjoining or within the limits of such municipality, exclusive of privately owned slips. Such structures may be located within or without the municipal limits.
Whenever an improvement, alteration, repair or extension of a dock wall or shore protection wall along the bank or shore of any waterway adjoining or within the limits of a municipality is required in order to eliminate menaces to navigation, or to promote the public health, safety or welfare, or to eliminate dilapidation, blight or obsolescence of such dock wall or shore protection wall, the board of harbor commissioners, if such board has been established within the municipality, or the local legislative body if no such board has been created, shall make a determination by resolution that it is essential that such dock wall or shore protection wall be improved, altered, repaired or extended. A certified copy of such resolution shall be served on the owners of the property of which such dock wall or shore protection wall is a part, by either forwarding such certified copy of the resolution by registered mail to the owners or by serving a certified copy of such resolution personally upon such owners if they can be found within the municipality. The resolution shall also specify a period of 90 days within which the owners shall be required to commence work for the improvement, alteration, repair or extension of the dock wall or shore protection wall.
If the owners of the property on which the dock wall or shore protection wall is located fail to notify the board of harbor commissioners or the local legislative body within the 90-day period that the work will be commenced as specified in the resolution, the board of harbor commissioners or the local legislative body shall request the city attorney, village attorney, town attorney or corporation counsel for the commencement of an action in the circuit court in the county in which the property is located for determination of whether or not the improvement, alteration, repair or extension of the dock wall or shore protection wall is required and for the fixing of the time by the court within which time the work must be commenced and completed. The action shall be entitled in the name of the state and the municipality, and the attorney general shall participate on behalf of the state. The complaint shall recite the type of improvement, alteration, repair or extension which is required, the approximate cost thereof, the need for such work as related to the reasons stated in par. (b)
, and such other allegations as may be pertinent. The owners of the property within which the dock wall or shore protection wall is located shall be named defendants. They shall be permitted to plead as provided for in civil actions. The action shall be brought to trial in the circuit court as promptly as possible. If the circuit court determines that the work shall be performed, it shall make a finding to that effect and enter an order directing the owners of the property to commence the work and to complete it within a period of time fixed by the court in the order, or in the alternative provide that the municipality may complete the work and charge the cost thereof to the owners of the property. If the work is performed by the municipality, the cost shall be recovered from the owners of the property as special assessments for benefits to lands provided for in s. 66.0703
. Either party to the action may appeal from the determination of the circuit court and the appeal shall be given preference. Only that portion of the cost of the work shall be assessed against the owners which is of benefit to their lands.
Make special assessments for benefits to lands on account of any of the improvements specified in sub. (3)
and also in those cases where the owners of the property to be benefited by improvements in navigable waters consent in advance to such assessments, and in no other case, but the cost of protecting the ends of public streets and highways and other public grounds shall be paid wholly by the municipality.
Acquisition of land.
Acquire such lands or interests therein as it deems necessary for properly carrying out its powers under this chapter, including such lands outside the municipal limits as are necessary to protect its property or to carry out its powers under sub. (3)
. Such acquisition may be by condemnation proceedings.
Cooperation with federal government in harbor improvements.
Prepare the necessary plats and otherwise cooperate with the federal government when it indicates its intention to aid in the improvement of any harbor over which the municipality has jurisdiction, including the authority granted by s. 66.0315
. If the municipality has established a board of harbor commissioners, such board shall have charge of the preparation of the plats and other necessary cooperation. The title to any lands acquired for the purpose of such harbor improvement may be transferred to the U.S. government for use in improving the harbor of the municipality.
Doing of work.
Contract for the doing of the work authorized by this section or purchase the necessary equipment for the doing of the work itself, but if the municipality has established a board of harbor commissioners such board shall have charge of the letting of contracts and shall supervise the doing of the work, except as provided in ss. 30.31 (1)
and 30.32 (2)
Lease of wharfing privileges.
Lease the wharfing privileges of navigable waters at the ends of streets, giving preference to owners of adjoining land, and prescribe or regulate the fees to be charged for wharfage at such places. No buildings shall be erected on the ends of streets, and a free passage over the same for all persons with their baggage shall be reserved; but nothing herein shall be construed to prohibit the erection of public buildings by a municipality within a filled in area of a lake or river where such municipality has been granted specific authority therefor by the legislature, or in conjunction therewith, in any street end or approaches thereto. No such construction on any street end or approaches shall prevent access to the navigable water. If the municipality has established a board of harbor commissioners, the municipality may delegate to such board the powers conferred by this subsection.
Judicial Council Note, 1983: Sub. (3) (c) is amended to replace the appeal deadline of 30 days after entry of the order by the standard time specified in s. 808.04 (1), stats. The subsection is further amended to eliminate the superfluous provision that the appeal be perfected in the same manner as other civil appeals. The manner of perfecting civil appeals is established by s. 809.11, stats. [Bill 151-S]
Procedural and other requirements to be followed in making harbor improvements. 30.31(1)(1)
Supervision of work.
In exercising the powers granted by s. 30.30 (1)
a municipality shall be governed by the law governing the laying out, improvement and repair of streets and bridges in such municipality, so far as applicable, except that no petition of property owners for doing any such work is necessary. If the municipality has established a board of harbor commissioners, such board shall be in charge of the work unless the board determines that it is not equipped to supervise the work and by resolution delegates such function to the agency which ordinarily performs such function for the municipality. If the municipality does not have a board of harbor commissioners, the municipality's board of public works or, in the event there is no such board, the municipality's governing body shall be in charge of the work.
Work requiring approval of state or federal government.
No work for which the approval of the department or of the United States is required shall be commenced unless the plans and specifications for such work have been submitted to and approved by the department or the proper officer of the United States, as the case may be. When the plans and specifications have been so approved, the work shall be done only in accordance with such plans and specifications.
Government aid in dredging of harbor channels and flood control projects.
Whenever the U.S. government indicates its intention to aid in any flood control project or in the improvement of any harbor by dredging of harbor channels at federal expense, subject to the proviso that the local interests save the federal government harmless from all liability and claims for damages resulting from such project or dredging, the governing body of such municipality may, by resolution, assume liability for and on behalf of both public and private ownership adjacent to, within, under and over the channels, land area and construction works in flood control projects, involved in such federal projects. Such municipality may provide adequate insurance coverage, indemnifying such municipality for all damage resulting from such project or dredging.
Acquisition of land.
In acquiring land by condemnation for any of the purposes specified in this chapter, a municipality shall be governed by the law relating to condemnation of land for public grounds or street purposes. Whenever land is acquired through a land contract arrangement, such contract may create a lien on such lands for the purchase price and interest thereon but shall not create any liability therefor on the part of the municipality.
Cooperation among municipalities.
Whenever 2 or more municipalities propose to cooperate in erecting, maintaining or repairing a dock wall or shore protection wall, their governing bodies shall first meet and adopt a method of proceeding and a plan of apportioning to each its share of the entire cost. Such method of proceeding and plan of apportionment shall be embodied in a resolution adopted by the governing bodies of the cooperating municipalities acting jointly and later such resolution shall be adopted by each of the governing bodies acting separately. Municipalities acting under this section shall have the powers conferred by s. 66.0301
Special assessments for benefits to lands, when authorized by s. 30.30 (4)
, shall be made and enforced as provided by s. 66.0703
, except that at any time within the 90-day period immediately following the publication of the final resolution as required by s. 66.0703 (8) (d)
, the owner of any property along which such improvement is to be made may elect to make the improvement along the owner's property at the owner's expense in accordance with the approved plans and specifications or in a manner which conforms to good engineering practice and which provides for materials and designs which, with respect to strength and permanence, are at least equal to the requirements of the approved plans and specifications. If the owner makes the improvement at the owner's expense, no assessment of benefits shall be made therefor. If such owner fails to commence the work within the 90-day period specified herein or fails to carry on and complete the work with due diligence, the work may be done or completed by the municipality and assessment of benefits made therefor.
Building permits for marine shipping structures.
Before any permit for building or improving any structure directly affecting marine shipping is issued by a municipality or any of its departments, the plans therefor shall be submitted to the municipality's board of harbor commissioners, if any. If the board finds that the location or design of the structure will adversely affect the orderly development of the harbor or the orderly movement of traffic to or within the harbor, the board may disapprove the plans, giving its specific reasons for such disapproval. No permit for building or improving any such structure shall be issued until the plans therefor have been approved by the board of harbor commissioners. The governing body of the municipality may delegate to the board of harbor commissioners the power to issue permits for construction of dock walls.
History: 1991 a. 316
; 1999 a. 150
Contracts; competitive bidding; exceptions. 30.32(1)(1)
Competitive bidding required.
Except as otherwise provided in this section, all work to be let relative to the construction, repair or maintenance of a harbor or harbor facility and all purchases of equipment, supplies or materials relative to carrying out the purposes of the statutes relating to harbors shall be by contract awarded to the lowest competent and reliable bidder in accordance with the laws of this state and ordinances then applicable to such municipality with reference to the letting of public work.
Board of harbor commissioners to have charge of letting contracts.
If a municipality has established a board of harbor commissioners, such board shall be in charge of the letting of contracts relative to construction, repair or maintenance of a harbor or harbor facility or the purchase of equipment, supplies or materials relative to carrying out the purposes of the statutes relating to harbors, in lieu of the officer or agency which otherwise would be in charge of the letting of public work, except that if the board determines that it is not equipped to handle the contracting formalities required under this section, it may by resolution delegate all or part of its functions under this section to the agency which ordinarily performs such functions for the municipality.
Exceptions to competitive bidding.
does not apply in any of the following cases, and work to be done or equipment, supplies or materials to be acquired may be contracted for or acquired without competitive bidding and in such manner as the officer or agency in charge of the work or acquisition may direct:
The work to be done or equipment, supplies or materials to be acquired will cost less than $25,000.
The work to be done or equipment, supplies or materials to be acquired involve marine construction or repair work requiring the use of floating scows, pile drivers or other floating equipment and will involve an expenditure of less than $50,000.
The equipment, supplies or materials to be acquired is a patented article or process or an article or process made by one party only.
The work to be done or equipment, supplies or materials to be acquired involves an emergency repair as set forth in sub. (4)
Whenever repairs become necessary to any harbor facility which, in the judgment of the official having executive charge of such facility, constitutes an emergency in that it interrupts the ordinary use and operation of such facility, such official may order such repairs to be made by some competent party without compliance with sub. (1)
or the intervention of a formal contract. In all cases of such emergency repairs the official causing the repairs to be made shall report the circumstances thereof, including the agreed price or estimated costs of the repairs, to the officer or agency in charge of the operation of the harbor and shall also forthwith send a copy of such report to the clerk of the municipality or, in the case of a city, to the chief auditing officer. Whenever any party is liable, under a lease or otherwise, to reimburse such municipality for repairs or cost of maintenance of such harbor facility, the official causing the repairs to be made shall also send a copy of such report to the party so liable.
Competency and reliability of bidders.
Whenever any bidder for any work to be let by an officer or agency in charge of a harbor is, in the judgment of such officer or agency, incompetent or otherwise unreliable for the performance of the work for which the bidder bids, the officer or agency may accept the bid of the person who, in its judgment, is the lowest competent and reliable bidder for such work, stating its reasons therefor, or may relet the same anew. Such officer or agency may permit a sum of money or a certified check payable to its order to be filed with any bid or proposal in such an amount as in its judgment will save the municipality from any loss if the bidder fails to execute a contract pursuant to law, in case the bidder's bid is accepted and the contract awarded to the bidder.
Contracts to provide for liquidated damages.
Every contract executed pursuant to sub. (1)
shall contain either of the following agreements on the part of the contractor and the contractor's sureties:
An agreement that in case such contractor fails to fully and completely perform the contract within the time therein limited for the performance thereof, the contractor shall pay to the municipality as liquidated damages for such default, a fixed sum to be named in the contract, which shall be such a sum as in the judgment of the officer or agency in charge of letting the contract will save the municipality harmless on account of such default and insure the prompt completion of the contract; or
An agreement that in case such contractor fails to fully and completely perform the contractor's part of the contract within the time therein limited for the performance thereof, the contractor shall pay to the municipality as liquidated damages for such default, a definite sum to be named in the contract for each day's delay in completing such contract after the time therein limited for its completion, which daily sum shall be such an amount as in the judgment of the officer or agency in charge of letting the contract will save the municipality harmless on account of such default and insure the prompt completion of the contract.
Contracts to be executed by sureties.
Every contract executed pursuant to sub. (1)
shall also be executed by at least 2 sufficient sureties, or a surety company, to be approved by the officer or agency letting the contract. Such sureties or surety company shall guarantee the full performance of the contract by the contractor to the satisfaction of such officer or agency, according to the plans and specifications of such officer or agency, and shall be liable for such performance of the contract, as sureties, in an amount equal to such officer's or agency's estimate of the aggregate cost of the work.
Payment before completion of contract.
When a contractor proceeds properly and with due diligence to perform a contract, the officer or agency which let the contract may, in its discretion, from time to time as the work progresses, grant to the contractor an estimate of the amount already earned for the work done, withholding in all cases until final completion and acceptance of the contract 15 percent of such estimate when such estimate is less than $100,000, and 10 percent of such estimate when such estimate is $100,000 or over, which shall entitle the contractor to receive such estimate less the amount withheld.
Optional contract provisions.
The officer or agency in charge of negotiating the contract may insert in the specifications of the work reasonable and lawful conditions as to hours of labor and the residence and character of workers to be employed by the contractor and especially, so far as is practicable in the judgment of such officer or agency, such reasonable and lawful conditions as will tend to confine employment on such work, in whole or in part, to permanent and bona fide residents of this state. The officer or agency may do any part of such work by day labor under such conditions as it prescribes. The officer or agency may demand of such bidders and contractors that all contracts shall be let subject to chs. 102
, to the end that the officer or agency and municipality shall be held harmless. The officer or agency may reject any or all bids or parts thereof for any such work or supplies or materials.
Conflicts with federal regulations.
Contracts for projects involving federal funds shall be let under such regulations and conditions as are prescribed by the federal agency controlling such funds, so far as such regulations and conditions conflict with this section.
Harbor railway belt lines. 30.33(1)(1)
Board to have powers of railroad corporation.
Any municipality operating a public harbor through a board of harbor commissioners may, through such board, construct, maintain or operate railway facilities or a harbor belt line connecting various harbor facilities with one another or with other railroads within the municipality or its vicinity. The board of harbor commissioners is granted all of the rights, powers and privileges conferred upon railroad corporations by ss. 190.02
and 190.025 (3)
, except such rights, powers and privileges as are conferred upon railroad corporations by s. 190.02 (9)
. Such facilities or belt line may be constructed, maintained or operated partly outside the corporate limits of the municipality. In constructing, maintaining or operating such facilities or belt line, the board of harbor commissioners has the powers and privileges of railroad corporations and shall be subject to the same restrictions as railroad corporations and to the supervision of the office of the commissioner of railroads, except as to the system of accounting and the payment of wages to employees.
Municipality may organize harbor railway corporation.
Any municipality mentioned in sub. (1)
may, with the consent of its board of harbor commissioners, organize a railroad corporation for the purpose of constructing, maintaining or operating a harbor belt line or may subscribe for stock in an existing railroad corporation organized for such purpose. If the municipality decides to organize a railroad corporation for such purpose, the governing body thereof may, by resolution, authorize the chief executive officer or presiding officer of such municipality to act, together with 4 citizens to be designated by the officer, as incorporators of such company. Such incorporators shall proceed to incorporate the railroad corporation in accordance with chs. 190
, so far as applicable. Such harbor railroad corporation is subject to the supervisory and regulatory powers of the office of the commissioner of railroads to the same extent as other railroad corporations. The municipality may subscribe to the stock of such harbor railroad corporation and may pay for such stock out of any funds it may lawfully have available for that purpose, including the proceeds of harbor improvement bonds.
Financing harbor improvements and operations generally. 30.34(1)(1)
Harbor fund to be created.
All municipalities operating a public harbor through a board of harbor commissioners shall establish in the municipal treasury a revolving fund to be known as the “harbor fund". Moneys for such fund may be raised by appropriation from the general fund or by taxation or loan as other moneys in the general fund are raised. Moneys in such fund may be expended only as provided in s. 30.38 (13)
Financing dock walls and shore protection walls.
A municipality may pay either or both the assessable and nonassessable parts of the cost of the construction, maintenance or repair of any dock wall or shore protection wall, authorized by s. 30.30 (3)
, out of its general fund or other available funds, or it may finance such work through the issuance of its negotiable bonds as provided in ch. 67
, except that it is not necessary to include such bonds in the municipal budget or to submit the question of their issuance to a referendum vote of the electors. The bonds shall be serial bonds, payable at any time within 10 years and shall bear interest payable either annually or semiannually as the governing body determines. The bonds shall be a direct obligation of the municipality and the full faith and credit of the municipality shall be pledged for their payment. No such bonds shall be issued unless at or before the time of their issuance the governing body levies a direct annual tax sufficient to pay the principal and interest thereon as they fall due.