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946.13 Annotation A county board member employed by an engineering and survey firm may have a possible conflict of interest in public contracts. 60 Atty. Gen. 98.
946.13 Annotation A member of the Wisconsin board of vocational, technical and adult education [now Technical college] may not bid on and contract for the construction of a building project for a vocational-technical district that would entail expenditures exceeding $2,000 in any year, when availability of federal funds for use on such project is subject to his approval as a member of the board. 60 Atty. Gen. 310.
946.13 Annotation Discussion of conflicts arising from election of a school principal to the office of alderperson. 60 Atty. Gen. 367.
946.13 Annotation Appointment of counsel for indigents involves a public contract. 62 Atty. Gen. 118.
946.13 Annotation A county supervisor who is a pharmacist probably does not violate this section in furnishing prescription services to medicaid patients when the state is solely liable for payment. 64 Atty. Gen. 108.
946.13 Annotation The marital property law does not change the applicability of this section to a member of a governmental body when that body employs the member's spouse. 76 Atty. Gen. 15.
946.13 Annotation This section applies to county board or department purchases aggregating more than $5,000 from a county supervisor-owned business. 76 Atty. Gen. 178.
946.13 Annotation When the village board administers a community development block grant program, a member of the village board would violate this section if he or she obtained a loan in excess of $5,000 under the program. Acting as a private contractor, the board member would violate sub. (1) if he contracted to perform the construction work for a 3rd person who obtained a loan under the program. 76 Atty. Gen. 278.
946.13 Annotation Sub. (1) (a) may be violated by members of the Private Industry Councils when private or public entities of which they are executives, directors or board members receive benefits under the Job Training Partnership Act. 77 Atty. Gen. 306.
946.14 946.14 Purchasing claims at less than full value. Any public officer or public employee who in a private capacity directly or indirectly intentionally purchases for less than full value or discounts any claim held by another against the state or a political subdivision thereof or against any public fund is guilty of a Class I felony.
946.14 History History: 1977 c. 173; 2001 a. 109.
946.15 946.15 Public construction contracts at less than full rate.
946.15(1)(1) Any employer, or any agent or employee of an employer, who induces any person who seeks to be or is employed pursuant to a public contract as defined in s. 66.0901 (1) (c) or who seeks to be or is employed on a project on which a prevailing wage rate determination has been issued by the department of workforce development under s. 66.0903 (3), 103.49 (3), 103.50 (3), or 229.8275 (3) to give up, waive, or return any part of the compensation to which that person is entitled under his or her contract of employment or under the prevailing wage rate determination issued by the department, or who reduces the hourly basic rate of pay normally paid to an employee for work on a project on which a prevailing wage rate determination has not been issued under s. 66.0903 (3), 103.49 (3), 103.50 (3), or 229.8275 (3) during a week in which the employee works both on a project on which a prevailing wage rate determination has been issued and on a project on which a prevailing wage rate determination has not been issued, is guilty of a Class I felony.
946.15(2) (2) Any person employed pursuant to a public contract as defined in s. 66.0901 (1) (c) or employed on a project on which a prevailing wage rate determination has been issued by the department of workforce development under s. 66.0903 (3), 103.49 (3), 103.50 (3), or 229.8275 (3) who gives up, waives, or returns to the employer or agent of the employer any part of the compensation to which the employee is entitled under his or her contract of employment or under the prevailing wage determination issued by the department, or who gives up any part of the compensation to which he or she is normally entitled for work on a project on which a prevailing wage rate determination has not been issued under s. 66.0903 (3), 103.49 (3), 103.50 (3), or 229.8275 (3) during a week in which the person works part-time on a project on which a prevailing wage rate determination has been issued and part-time on a project on which a prevailing wage rate determination has not been issued, is guilty of a Class C misdemeanor.
946.15(3) (3) Any employer or labor organization, or any agent or employee of an employer or labor organization, who induces any person who seeks to be or is employed on a project on which a prevailing wage rate determination has been issued by the department of workforce development under s. 66.0903 (3), 103.49 (3), 103.50 (3), or 229.8275 (3) to permit any part of the wages to which that person is entitled under the prevailing wage rate determination issued by the department or local governmental unit to be deducted from the person's pay is guilty of a Class I felony, unless the deduction would be permitted under 29 CFR 3.5 or 3.6 from a person who is working on a project that is subject to 40 USC 3142.
946.15(4) (4) Any person employed on a project on which a prevailing wage rate determination has been issued by the department of workforce development under s. 66.0903 (3), 103.49 (3), 103.50 (3), or 229.8275 (3) who permits any part of the wages to which that person is entitled under the prevailing wage rate determination issued by the department or local governmental unit to be deducted from his or her pay is guilty of a Class C misdemeanor, unless the deduction would be permitted under 29 CFR 3.5 or 3.6 from a person who is working on a project that is subject to 40 USC 3142.
946.16 946.16 Judicial officer collecting claims. Any judicial officer who causes to be brought in a court over which the officer presides any action or proceeding upon a claim placed with the officer as agent or attorney for collection is guilty of a Class B misdemeanor.
946.16 History History: 1977 c. 173.
946.17 946.17 Corrupt means to influence legislation; disclosure of interest. Any person who gives or agrees or offers to give anything of value to any person, for the service of such person or of any other person in procuring the passage or defeat of any measure before the legislature or before either house or any committee thereof, upon the contingency or condition of the passage or defeat of the measure, or who receives, or agrees to receive anything of value for such service, upon any such contingency or condition, or who, having a pecuniary or other interest, or acting as the agent or attorney of any person in procuring or attempting to procure the passage or defeat of any measure before the legislature or before either house or any committee thereof, attempts in any manner to influence any member of the legislature for or against the measure, without first making known to the member the real and true interest he or she has in the measure, either personally or as such agent or attorney, is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
946.17 History History: 1977 c. 278 s. 1; Stats. 1977 s. 946.17; 1993 a. 213.
946.18 946.18 Misconduct sections apply to all public officers. Sections 946.10 to 946.17 apply to public officers, whether legally constituted or exercising powers as if legally constituted.
946.18 History History: 1977 c. 278; 1979 c. 110.
subch. III of ch. 946 SUBCHAPTER III
PERJURY AND FALSE SWEARING
946.31 946.31 Perjury.
946.31(1)(1) Whoever under oath or affirmation orally makes a false material statement which the person does not believe to be true, in any matter, cause, action or proceeding, before any of the following, whether legally constituted or exercising powers as if legally constituted, is guilty of a Class H felony:
946.31(1)(a) (a) A court;
946.31(1)(b) (b) A magistrate;
946.31(1)(c) (c) A judge, referee or court commissioner;
946.31(1)(d) (d) An administrative agency or arbitrator authorized by statute to determine issues of fact;
946.31(1)(e) (e) A notary public while taking testimony for use in an action or proceeding pending in court;
946.31(1)(f) (f) An officer authorized to conduct inquests of the dead;
946.31(1)(g) (g) A grand jury;
946.31(1)(h) (h) A legislative body or committee.
946.31(2) (2) It is not a defense to a prosecution under this section that the perjured testimony was corrected or retracted.
946.31 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1979 c. 110; 2001 a. 109.
946.31 Annotation An arbitrator selected from a list provided by WERC is authorized by s. 111.10 to arbitrate as provided in ch. 298 [now ch. 788] and so is "authorized by statute" within meaning of s. 946.31 (1) (d). Layton School of Art & Design v. WERC, 82 Wis. 2d 324, 262 N.W.2d 218 (1978).
946.31 Annotation Perjury consists of a false statement that the defendant knew was false, was made under oath in a proceeding before a judge, and was material to the proceeding. Materiality is determined by whether the trial court could have relied on the testimony in making a decision, not on whether it actually did. State v. Munz, 198 Wis. 2d 379, 541 N.W.2d 821 (Ct. App. 1995), 95-0635.
946.31 Annotation A defendant may be charged with multiple counts of perjury based on testimony given in the same proceeding when each charge requires proof of an additional fact that the others do not. State v. Warren, 229 Wis. 2d 172, 599 N.W.2d 431 (Ct. App. 1999), 99-0129.
946.31 Annotation Issue preclusion does not bar the prosecution of a defendant for perjury who was tried and acquitted on a single issue when newly discovered evidence suggests that the defendant falsely testified on the issue. The state must show that: 1) the evidence came to the state's attention after trial; 2) the state was not negligent in failing to discover the evidence; 3) the evidence is material to the issue; and 4) the evidence is not merely cumulative. State v. Canon, 2001 WI 11, 241 Wis. 2d 164, 622 N.W.2d 270, 98-3519.
946.31 Annotation Perjury prosecutions after acquittals. Shellenberger. 71 MLR 703 (1988).
946.32 946.32 False swearing.
946.32(1)(1) Whoever does either of the following is guilty of a Class H felony:
946.32(1)(a) (a) Under oath or affirmation or upon signing a statement pursuant to s. 887.015 makes or subscribes a false statement which he or she does not believe is true, when such oath, affirmation, or statement is authorized or required by law or is required by any public officer or governmental agency as a prerequisite to such officer or agency taking some official action.
946.32(1)(b) (b) Makes or subscribes 2 inconsistent statements under oath or affirmation or upon signing a statement pursuant to s. 887.015 in regard to any matter respecting which an oath, affirmation, or statement is, in each case, authorized or required by law or required by any public officer or governmental agency as a prerequisite to such officer or agency taking some official action, under circumstances which demonstrate that the witness or subscriber knew at least one of the statements to be false when made. The period of limitations within which prosecution may be commenced runs from the time of the first statement.
946.32(2) (2) Whoever under oath or affirmation or upon signing a statement pursuant to s. 887.015 makes or subscribes a false statement which the person does not believe is true is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
946.32 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1993 a. 486; 2001 a. 109; 2009 a. 166.
946.32 Annotation This section applies to oral statements. The mere fact that a statement is permitted by law does not mean it is "authorized by law" within meaning of sub. (1) (a). State v. Devitt, 82 Wis. 2d 262, 262 N.W.2d 73 (1978).
946.32 Annotation The reference to the statute of limitations in sub. (1) (b) does not make it an element of the offense. The statute of limitations is an affirmative defense and is subject to tolling under s. 939.74. State v. Slaughter, 200 Wis. 2d 190, 546 N.W.2d 490 (Ct. App. 1996), 95-0141.
946.32 Annotation What is to be "authorized or required" under sub. (1) (b) is the oath itself, not the matter respecting which the oath is taken. State v. Slaughter, 200 Wis. 2d 190, 546 N.W.2d 490 (Ct. App. 1996), 95-0141.
subch. IV of ch. 946 SUBCHAPTER IV
INTERFERENCE WITH LAW ENFORCEMENT
946.40 946.40 Refusing to aid officer.
946.40(1) (1) Whoever, without reasonable excuse, refuses or fails, upon command, to aid any person known by the person to be a peace officer is guilty of a Class C misdemeanor.
946.40(2) (2) This section does not apply if under the circumstances the officer was not authorized to command such assistance.
946.40 History History: 1977 c. 173.
946.40 Annotation Under s. 343.305, hospital personnel must administer a blood alcohol test and report the results at the request of an officer, subject to the penalty under 946.40. 68 Atty. Gen. 209.
946.40 Annotation In certain circumstances a peace officer may command medical staff at a hospital or clinic to gather evidence from a sexual assault victim. 72 Atty. Gen. 107.
946.41 946.41 Resisting or obstructing officer.
946.41(1) (1) Except as provided in subs. (2m) and (2r), whoever knowingly resists or obstructs an officer while such officer is doing any act in an official capacity and with lawful authority is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
946.41(2) (2) In this section:
946.41(2)(a) (a) "Obstructs" includes without limitation knowingly giving false information to the officer or knowingly placing physical evidence with intent to mislead the officer in the performance of his or her duty including the service of any summons or civil process.
946.41(2)(b) (b) "Officer" means a peace officer or other public officer or public employee having the authority by virtue of the officer's or employee's office or employment to take another into custody.
946.41(2)(c) (c) "Soft tissue injury" means an injury that requires medical attention to a tissue that connects, supports, or surrounds other structures and organs of the body and includes tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, fibrous tissues, fat, synovial membranes, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.
946.41(2m) (2m) Whoever violates sub. (1) under all of the following circumstances is guilty of a Class H felony:
946.41(2m)(a) (a) The violator gives false information or places physical evidence with intent to mislead an officer.
946.41(2m)(b) (b) At a criminal trial, the trier of fact considers the false information or physical evidence.
946.41(2m)(c) (c) The trial results in the conviction of an innocent person.
946.41(2r) (2r) Whoever violates sub. (1) and causes substantial bodily harm or a soft tissue injury to an officer is guilty of a Class H felony.
946.41(2t) (2t) Whoever violates sub. (1) and causes great bodily harm to an officer is guilty of a Class G felony.
946.41(3) (3) Whoever by violating this section hinders, delays or prevents an officer from properly serving or executing any summons or civil process, is civilly liable to the person injured for any actual loss caused thereby and to the officer or the officer's superior for any damages adjudged against either of them by reason thereof.
946.41 Annotation The state must prove that the accused knew that the officer was acting in an official capacity and knew that the officer was acting with lawful authority when the accused allegedly resisted or obstructed the officer. State v. Lossman, 118 Wis. 2d 526, 348 N.W.2d 159 (1984).
946.41 Annotation Knowingly providing false information with intent to mislead is obstruction as a matter of law. State v. Caldwell, 154 Wis. 2d 683, 454 N.W.2d 13 (Ct. App. 1990).
946.41 Annotation No law allows officers to arrest for obstruction on a person's refusal to give his or her name. Mere silence is insufficient to constitute obstruction. Henes v. Morrissey, 194 Wis. 2d 339, 533 N.W.2d 802 (1995).
946.41 Annotation Fleeing and hiding from an officer may constitute obstructing. State v. Grobstick, 200 Wis. 2d 242, 546 N.W.2d 187 (1996), 94-1045.
946.41 Annotation There is no exculpatory denial exception under this section. The statute criminalizes all false statements knowingly made and with intent to mislead the police. The state should have sound reasons for believing that a defendant knowingly made false statements with intent to mislead the police and not out of a good-faith attempt to defend against accusations of a crime. The latter can never include the former. State v. Reed, 2005 WI 53, 280 Wis. 2d 68, 695 N.W.2d 315, 03-1781.
946.41 Annotation "Lawful authority," as that term is used in sub. (1), requires that police conduct be in compliance with both the federal and state constitutions, in addition to any applicable statutes. State v. Ferguson, 2009 WI 50, 317 Wis. 2d 586, 767 N.W.2d 187, 07-2095.
946.415 946.415 Failure to comply with officer's attempt to take person into custody.
946.415(1) (1) In this section, "officer" has the meaning given in s. 946.41 (2) (b).
946.415(2) (2) Whoever intentionally does all of the following is guilty of a Class I felony:
946.415(2)(a) (a) Refuses to comply with an officer's lawful attempt to take him or her into custody.
946.415(2)(b) (b) Retreats or remains in a building or place and, through action or threat, attempts to prevent the officer from taking him or her into custody.
946.415(2)(c) (c) While acting under pars. (a) and (b), remains or becomes armed with a dangerous weapon or threatens to use a dangerous weapon regardless of whether he or she has a dangerous weapon.
946.415 History History: 1995 a. 93; 2001 a. 109.
946.415 Annotation This section delineates one crime: a suspect's armed, physical refusal to be taken into custody. It can be committed by action or threat, which are alternative ways of threatening an officer to avoid being taken into custody. A jury instruction requiring unanimity on which occurred is not required. State v. Koeppen, 2000 WI App 121, 237 Wis. 2d 418, 614 N.W.2d 530, 99-0418.
946.42 946.42 Escape.
946.42(1)(1) In this section:
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 200 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before April 11, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after April 11, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 4-11-14)