344.25(7) (7) At the time of the motor vehicle accident giving rise to the judgment, the person was complying with s. 344.62 (1) or s. 344.63 (1) applies.
344.26 344.26 Suspension after judgment for money damages.
344.26(1)(1)
344.26(1)(a)(a) Subject to the exceptions stated in ss. 344.25 (2) and 344.27 (2), any operating privilege or registration suspended or revoked under s. 344.25 shall remain suspended or revoked for 5 years from the date of entry of judgment or until the judgment is stayed, satisfied, or discharged, whichever is earlier, and, unless 3 years have elapsed since the date on which the judgment was stayed, satisfied, or discharged or 8 years have elapsed since the date of entry of judgment, whichever is earlier, or unless the person is a nonresident, until the person whose operating privilege and registration was suspended or revoked furnishes and maintains in effect proof of financial responsibility for the future.
344.26(1)(b) (b) If suspension of any operating privilege or registration under s. 344.25 was terminated before 5 years from the date of entry of judgment because an exception under s. 344.25 (2) or 344.27 (2) applied and the judgment debtor's operating privilege or registration is subsequently suspended under s. 344.25 (2) or 344.27 (3), the operating privilege or registration shall remain suspended for all of the following periods:
344.26(1)(b)1. 1. Five years from the date of suspension under s. 344.25 (2) or 344.27 (3) or until the judgment is stayed, satisfied, or discharged, whichever is earlier. A suspension period that commences on the date of suspension under s. 344.25 (2) or 344.27 (3) under this subdivision shall be reduced by the amount of time that the judgment debtor's operating privilege or registration was suspended under s. 344.25 before one of the exceptions under s. 344.25 (2) or 344.27 (2) was satisfied.
344.26(1)(b)2. 2. Three years from the date on which the period under subd. 1. expires. The suspension under this subdivision does not apply to a person who is a nonresident or who furnishes and maintains in effect proof of financial responsibility for the future.
344.26(3) (3) Judgments in excess of the amounts specified in s. 344.01 (2) (d) shall, for the purpose of this section only, be deemed satisfied when payments in the amounts so specified have been credited thereon. Payments made in settlement of any claims because of bodily injury, death or property damage arising from a motor vehicle accident shall be credited in reduction of the respective amounts so specified.
344.27 344.27 Installment payment of judgments; suspension upon default.
344.27(1)(1) A judgment debtor upon due notice to the judgment creditor may apply to the court in which such judgment was rendered for the privilege of paying such judgment in installments and the court, in its discretion and without prejudice to any other legal remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may so order and fix the amounts and times of payment of the installments.
344.27(2) (2) The secretary shall not suspend the operating privilege or registration and shall restore any operating privilege or registration suspended following nonpayment of a judgment when the judgment debtor obtains such order permitting the payment of the judgment in installments and, unless 3 years have elapsed since the date on which the order permitting the payment of the judgment in installments is filed with the secretary or unless the judgment debtor is a nonresident, furnishes and maintains proof of financial responsibility for the future.
344.27(3) (3) If the judgment debtor fails to pay any installment as specified by such order, the secretary, upon notice of such default, shall immediately suspend the operating privilege and registrations of the judgment debtor until such judgment is satisfied or until the applicable time limit is reached as provided in s. 344.26.
344.29 344.29 Proof of financial responsibility for the future required. Proof of financial responsibility for the future shall be furnished by any person required to give such proof under ss. 344.25 to 344.27, those cases in which the deposit of proof of financial responsibility for the future is a condition precedent to reinstatement of an operating privilege or registration suspended or revoked under s. 344.14, 344.18 (3) or 344.19 (3) and in those cases in which the deposit of proof of financial responsibility for the future is a condition precedent to issuance of an operator's license under s. 343.38 (4) or reinstatement of an operating privilege revoked under ch. 343.
344.29 History History: 1973 c. 90; 1989 a. 72; 1991 a. 269; 1997 a. 84.
344.30 344.30 Methods of giving proof of financial responsibility. Whenever a person is required under ch. 343 or this chapter to give proof of financial responsibility for the future, such proof may be given by filing:
344.30(1) (1) Certification of insurance as provided in s. 344.31; or
344.30(2) (2) A bond as provided in s. 344.36; or
344.30(3) (3) A certificate of deposit of money or securities as provided in s. 344.37; or
344.30(4) (4) A certificate of self-insurance as provided in s. 344.16, supplemented by an agreement by the self-insurer that, with respect to accidents occurring while the certificate is in force, the self-insurer will pay the same amounts that an insurer would have been obligated to pay under a motor vehicle liability policy if it had issued such a policy to such self-insurer.
344.31 344.31 Certification of insurance as proof. Proof of financial responsibility for the future may be furnished by filing with the secretary the written certification of any insurer duly authorized to do business in this state that there is in effect a motor vehicle liability policy for the benefit of the person required to furnish proof of financial responsibility or by transmitting such certification to the secretary by another means approved by the secretary. Such certification shall give the effective date of such motor vehicle liability policy, which date shall be the same as the effective date of the certification and shall certify coverage for any motor vehicle operated by the named insured if the certification is required to be furnished by a vehicle operator or coverage for any motor vehicle owned by the named insured if the certification is required to be furnished by a vehicle owner.
344.31 Annotation No policy issued pursuant to the ch. 344 financial responsibility statutes may exclude coverage for persons related by blood or marriage to the operator as mandated by s. 632.32 (6) (b) 1. Bindrim v. Colonial Ins. Co. 190 Wis. 2d 525, 527 N.W.2d 321 (1995).
344.31 Annotation This section does not mandate insurance on the person (an operator's policy) and on all the vehicles such person may own (an owner's policy). It is incumbent upon the person seeking insurance to inform the insurance company of whether he or she wants an operator's policy, an owner's policy, or both. It is not the insurer's duty, absent instruction from the insured, to issue both types of policies. McKillip v. Bauman, 2005 WI App 165, 285 Wis. 2d 646, 702 N.W.2d 79, 04-2489.
344.33 344.33 "Motor vehicle liability policy" defined.
344.33(1)(1) Certification. In this chapter, "motor vehicle liability policy" means a motor vehicle policy of liability insurance, certified as provided in s. 344.31 as proof of financial responsibility for the future, and issued by an insurer authorized to do an automobile liability business in this state to or for the benefit of the person named in the policy as the insured.
344.33(2) (2)Motor vehicle liability policy. A motor vehicle policy of liability insurance shall insure the person named therein using any motor vehicle with the express or implied permission of the owner, or shall insure any motor vehicle owned by the named insured and any person using such motor vehicle with the express or implied permission of the named insured, against loss from the liability imposed by law for damages arising out of the maintenance or use of the motor vehicle within the United States of America or the Dominion of Canada, subject to the following limits with respect to each such motor vehicle:
344.33(2)(a) (a) Twenty-five thousand dollars because of bodily injury to or death of one person in any one accident.
344.33(2)(b) (b) Subject to the limit under par. (a) for one person, $50,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in any one accident.
344.33(2)(c) (c) Ten thousand dollars because of injury to or destruction of property of others in any one accident.
344.33(3) (3)Required statements in policy. Such motor vehicle liability policy shall state the name and address of the named insured, the coverage afforded by the policy, the premium charged therefor, the policy period and the limits of liability, and shall contain an agreement or be endorsed that insurance is provided thereunder in accordance with the coverage defined in this chapter with respect to bodily injury and death or property damage, or both, and is subject to all the provisions of this chapter.
344.33(4) (4)Certain types of coverage excluded. Such motor vehicle liability policy shall not insure any liability under any worker's compensation law as provided in ch. 102 nor any liability on account of bodily injury to or death of any employee of the insured while engaged in the employment, other than domestic, of the insured, or while engaged in the operation, maintenance or repair of any such motor vehicle or any liability for damage to property owned by, rented to, in charge of or transported by the insured.
344.33(5) (5)Provisions incorporated in policy by law. Every motor vehicle liability policy shall be subject to the following provisions which need not be contained therein:
344.33(5)(a) (a) The policy may not be canceled or annulled as to such liability by any agreement between the insurer and the insured after the occurrence of any injury or damage covered by such motor vehicle liability policy.
344.33(5)(b) (b) The satisfaction by the insured of a judgment for such injury or damage shall not be a condition precedent to the right or duty of the insurer to make payment on account of such injury or damage.
344.33(5)(c) (c) The insurer shall have the right to settle any claim covered by the policy, and if such settlement is made in good faith, the amount thereof shall be deductible from the limits of liability specified in sub. (2).
344.33(5)(d) (d) The policy, the written application therefor, if any, and any rider or endorsement which does not conflict with the provisions of this chapter constitutes the entire contract between the parties.
344.33(6) (6)Excess or additional coverage. Any policy which grants the coverage required for a motor vehicle liability policy may also grant any lawful coverage in excess of or in addition to the coverage specified for a motor vehicle liability policy and such excess or additional coverage is not subject to the provisions of this chapter. With respect to a policy which grants such excess or additional coverage the term "motor vehicle liability policy" applies only to that part of the coverage which is required by this section.
344.33(7) (7)Reimbursement provision permitted. Any motor vehicle liability policy may provide that the insured shall reimburse the insurer for any payment the insurer would not have been obligated to make under the terms of the policy except for the provisions of this section.
344.33(8) (8)Proration of insurance permitted. Any motor vehicle liability policy may provide for the prorating of the insurance thereunder with other valid and collectible insurance.
344.33(9) (9)Multiple policies. The requirements for a motor vehicle liability policy may be fulfilled by the policies of one or more insurers which policies together meet such requirements.
344.33(10) (10)Binders. Any binder issued pending the issuance of a motor vehicle liability policy shall be deemed to fulfill the requirements for such a policy.
344.33 Annotation Although the record owner's son loaned the car to another against the father's express wishes, the record owner's permission under sub. (2) was presumed as a matter of law when the son's custody and control was such that son was the car's real owner. Permissive use is to be viewed the same under sub. (2) or under the omnibus coverage of s. 204.30 (3), 1975 stats. [now s. 632.32 (3)]. Gross v. Joecks, 72 Wis. 2d 583, 241 N.W.2d 727 (1976).
344.33 Annotation Financial responsibility statutes mandate insurance on the person, not on the vehicles that the person may own. Cardinal v. Leader National Insurance Co. 166 Wis. 2d 375, 480 N.W.2d 1 (1992).
344.33 Annotation The requirements of this section do not apply to all automobile insurance policies issued in this state, only those that provide proof of financial responsibility under s. 344.31 or 344.32. Beerbohm v. State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co. 2000 WI App 105, 235 Wis. 2d 182, 612 N.W.2d 338, 99-1784.
344.33 Annotation An insurer's excess coverage was illusory in the context of its nonowned vehicle provision. This section requires policy limits of at least $25,000. The insurer's policy limited coverage to $25,000, but excess only. Because the policy's limit was equal to the statutory minimum, and stacking is prevented, the policy would never provide excess coverage. Janssen v. State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company, 2003 WI App 183, 266 Wis. 2d 430, 668 N.W.2d 820, 02-2928.
344.33 Annotation Sub. (2) applies only to liability policies, not uninsured motorist coverage. Crandall v. Society Insurance, 2004 WI App 34, 269 Wis. 2d 765, 676 N.W.2d 174, 03-1453.
344.33 Annotation The 10-day notice requirement in s. 344.34 results in a period of time in which the insurer owes coverage to the public despite the fact that its policy with its insured was not contractually in force. However, sub. (7) allows an insurer to recover from its insured any claims it paid that it would not have been obligated to pay but for the Financial Responsibility law. When the insured's policy lapsed 3 days before an accident, but the insurer did not send a notice of cancellation to the state under s. 344.34 until after the accident, the insurer had a responsibility to cover 3rd-party losses and was entitled to seek reimbursement from the insured under sub. (7). Acuity v. Albert, 2012 WI App 87, 343 Wis. 2d 594, 819 N.W.2d 340, 12-0382.
344.33 Annotation The meaning of sub. (9) is plain: the minimum coverage requirements of the financial responsibility law can be satisfied only by one or more certified policies. In this case, there was only one certified policy. That policy was required to fulfill the financial responsibility law's requirements. Among other requirements, the policy must "insure the person named therein using any motor vehicle," which meant that the policy's exclusion for injury or damages "resulting from the ... use of a motorized vehicle with less than four wheels" could not apply. Hechimovich v. Acuity, 2014 WI App 14, 352 Wis. 2d 513, 842 N.W.2d 493, 13-1011.
344.34 344.34 Notice of cancellation or termination of certified policy. When an insurer has certified a motor vehicle liability policy under s. 344.31 or a bond under s. 344.36, the insurance so certified shall not be canceled or terminated until at least 10 days after a notice of cancellation or termination of the insurance so certified has been filed in the office of the secretary. No insurance so certified may be canceled or terminated by the insurer prior to the expiration of 90 days from the effective date of the certification on the grounds of failure to pay a premium when due. Such a certified policy or bond subsequently procured shall, on the effective date of its certification, terminate the insurance previously certified. Any certification or recertification filed by the same insurer following cancellation shall be accompanied by a fee of $3 payable by the insurer.
344.34 Annotation The failure of an insurer to comply with the notice requirement under this section precludes the insurer from asserting that a previously certified policy had lapsed. Lang v. Kurtz, 100 Wis. 2d 40, 301 N.W.2d 262 (Ct. App. 1980).
344.34 Annotation The 10-day notice of cancellation requirement only applied to liability coverage of a policy acquired to satisfy proof of financial responsibility. Uninsured motorist coverage cancellation took effect immediately. Nutter v. Milwaukee Insurance Co. 167 Wis. 2d 449, 481 N.W.2d 701 (Ct. App. 1992).
344.34 Annotation The 10-day notice requirement in this section results in a period of time in which the insurer owes coverage to the public despite the fact that its policy with its insured was not contractually in force. However, s. 344.33 (7) allows an insurer to recover from its insured any claims it paid that it would not have been obligated to pay but for the Financial Responsibility law. When the insured's policy lapsed 3 days before an accident, but the insurer did not send a notice of cancellation to the state under this section until after the accident, the insurer had a responsibility to cover 3rd-party losses and was entitled to seek reimbursement from the insured under s. 344.33 (7). Acuity v. Albert, 2012 WI App 87, 343 Wis. 2d 594, 819 N.W.2d 340, 12-0382.
344.35 344.35 This chapter not to affect other policies.
344.35(1)(1) This chapter does not apply to or affect policies of automobile insurance against liability which may now or hereafter be required by any other law of this state. If such policies contain an agreement or are endorsed to conform to the requirements of this chapter, they may be certified as proof of financial responsibility under this chapter.
344.35(2) (2) This chapter does not apply to or affect policies insuring solely the insured named in the policy against liability resulting from the maintenance or use by persons in the insured's employ or on the insured's behalf of motor vehicles not owned by the insured.
344.35 History History: 1991 a. 316.
344.36 344.36 Bond as proof.
344.36(1)(1) Proof of financial responsibility may be evidenced by the bond of a surety company duly authorized to transact business within this state or a bond with at least 2 individual sureties each owning real estate within this state and together having equities equal in value to at least twice the amount of the bond, which real estate shall be scheduled in the bond approved by a judge of a court of record. Such bond shall be conditioned for the payment of the amounts specified in s. 344.01 (2) (d). The bond shall be filed with the secretary and shall not be cancelable except after 10 days' written notice to the secretary.
344.36(2) (2) The bond constitutes a lien in favor of the state upon any surety's real estate which is scheduled in the bond and which is not exempt by law from execution. Such lien is effective as of the time when the secretary records the bond in the office of the register of deeds of the county wherein such real estate is located, as provided in s. 706.05 (1). Such lien exists in favor of any holder of a final judgment against the person who filed such bond, for damages resulting from the ownership, maintenance, use or operation of a motor vehicle after such bond was recorded, including damages for care and for loss of services because of bodily injury to or death of any person and damages because of injury to or destruction of property and the consequent loss of use thereof.
344.36(3) (3) If the judgment rendered against the principal on the bond is not satisfied within 60 days after it has become final, the judgment creditor may, for his or her own use and benefit and at the judgment creditor's sole expense, bring an action in the name of the state against the company or persons executing the bond, including an action or proceeding to foreclose any lien that may exist upon the real estate of a person who has executed such bond. In the foreclosure of such lien, ch. 846 on the foreclosure of real estate mortgages shall apply as far as possible.
344.36 History History: 1973 c. 189 s. 20; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 776 (1975); 1975 c. 218; 1977 c. 29 s. 1654 (7) (c).
344.36 Annotation The direct action statute, s. 632.24, does not apply to actions in which the principal on a bond under this section causes injury. Sub. (3) requires obtaining a judgment against the principal before an action may be brought against the surety. Vansguard v. Progressive Northern Insurance Co. 188 Wis. 2d 584, 525 N.W.2d 146 (Ct. App. 1994).
344.37 344.37 Money or securities as proof.
344.37(1) (1) Proof of financial responsibility for the future may be evidenced by a deposit with the secretary by the person of $60,000 in cash, or in securities such as may legally be purchased by savings banks or for trust funds of a market value of $60,000. The secretary shall not accept any such deposit unless accompanied by evidence that there are no unsatisfied judgments of any character against the depositor in the county where the depositor resides.
344.37(2) (2) Deposits made under this section shall be held by the secretary to satisfy, in accordance with this chapter, any execution on a judgment issued against the person making the deposit, for damages resulting from the ownership, maintenance, use or operation of a motor vehicle after such deposit was made, including damages for care and for loss of services because of bodily injury to or death of any person and damages because of injury to or destruction of property and the consequent loss of use thereof. Money or securities so deposited are not subject to attachment or execution unless such attachment or execution arises out of a suit for damages as set forth in this section.
344.37 History History: 1971 c. 164 s. 82; 1975 c. 270; 1977 c. 29 s. 1654 (7) (c); 1989 a. 32.
344.38 344.38 Owner and leasing company may give proof for others. Whenever any person required to give proof of financial responsibility for the future under this chapter is or later becomes an operator in the employ of any owner, or is or later becomes a member of the immediate family or household of the owner, the secretary shall accept proof given by such owner in lieu of proof by such other person. If the vehicle is leased to the employer, then the leasing company may file proof of financial responsibility on behalf of the person required to furnish such proof. When proof has been given as provided in this section, the person on whose behalf such proof was furnished may be granted a license, but only to operate those vehicles for which proof was so given. The department shall note such restriction on the person's license, including a designation of each vehicle for which proof was given.
344.38 History History: 1977 c. 29 s. 1654 (7) (a), (c).
344.39 344.39 Substitution of proof. The secretary shall consent to the cancellation of any bond or certification of insurance or return any money or securities to the person entitled thereto upon the substitution and acceptance of other adequate proof of financial responsibility pursuant to this chapter.
344.39 History History: 1975 c. 270; 1977 c. 29 s. 1654 (7) (c); 1987 a. 27.
344.40 344.40 Revocation or suspension for failure to maintain proof; other proof may be required.
344.40(1) (1)
344.40(1)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (b), whenever any person whose operating privilege was suspended or revoked who has furnished proof of financial responsibility fails to maintain such proof at any time during the period when proof of financial responsibility is required, the secretary shall suspend or revoke such person's operating privilege for a period of time running from the date of suspension or revocation until such time as either satisfactory proof of financial responsibility is again furnished or the period during which proof was required to be furnished has expired.
344.40(1)(b) (b) Whenever any person who has furnished proof of financial responsibility fails to maintain such proof at any time during the period when proof of financial responsibility is required under s. 344.18 (1m) or (3m) or 344.19 (3m), the secretary shall suspend all of the person's registrations for a period of time running from the date of suspension until such time as either satisfactory proof of financial responsibility is again furnished or the period during which proof was required to be furnished has expired.
344.40(2) (2)
344.40(2)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (b), whenever any proof of financial responsibility filed under this chapter no longer fulfills the purposes for which required, the secretary shall require other proof meeting the requirements of this chapter and shall suspend or revoke the operating privilege pending the filing of such other proof.
344.40(2)(b) (b) Whenever any proof of financial responsibility filed under s. 344.18 (1m) or (3m) or 344.19 (3m) no longer fulfills the purposes for which required, the secretary shall require other proof meeting the requirements of this chapter and shall suspend all of the person's registrations pending the filing of such other proof.
344.41 344.41 Duration of proof; when proof may be canceled or returned.
344.41(1)(1) Subject to the exceptions set forth in sub. (2), the secretary shall, upon request, consent to the immediate cancellation of any bond or certification of insurance, return to the person entitled thereto any money or securities deposited pursuant to this chapter as proof of financial responsibility and shall waive any requirement of the filing of proof of financial responsibility whenever, except as provided in sub. (1m), any of the following events has occurred:
344.41(1)(a) (a) The period during which proof of financial responsibility is required has expired; or
344.41(1)(b) (b) The person on whose behalf such proof was filed has died or has become permanently incapacitated to operate a motor vehicle; or
344.41(1)(c) (c) The person who has given proof surrenders the person's license to the secretary.
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2013-14 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2013 Wis. Act 380 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before Jan. 1, 2015. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after Jan. 1, 2015 are designated by NOTES. (Published 1-1-15)