(22) Reserve percentage.
“Reserve percentage" shall for contribution purposes refer to the status of an employer's account, as determined by the department as of the applicable “computation date". In calculating an employer's net reserve as of any computation date, the employer's account shall be charged with benefits paid on or before said date, and shall be credited with contributions, on the employer's payroll through said date, if paid by the close of the month which follows said date or if paid pursuant to s. 108.18 (7)
and within the period therein specified. The employer's “reserve percentage" means the net reserve of the employer's account as of the computation date, stated as a percentage of the employer's “payroll" in the year ending on such date or in the year applicable under s. 108.18 (6)
(22m) School year employee.
“School year employee" means an employee of an educational institution or an educational service agency, or an employee of a government unit, Indian tribe, or nonprofit organization which provides services to or on behalf of an educational institution, who performs services under an employment contract which does not require the performance of services on a year-round basis.
(23) Seasonal employer.
“Seasonal employer" means an employer designated by the department under s. 108.066
(23g) Skilled nursing service.
“Skilled nursing service" means professional nursing service that is provided under a physician's order, that requires the skills of a licensed registered nurse or licensed practical nurse, and that is provided directly by the licensed registered nurse or licensed practical nurse or directly by the licensed practical nurse under the supervision of the licensed registered nurse.
(24) Standard rate.
As to any calendar year, “standard rate" means the combined rate of contributions from the applicable schedules of s. 108.18 (4)
which is closest to but not less than 5.4 percent.
(24m) Temporary help company.
“Temporary help company" means an entity which contracts with a client to supply individuals to perform services for the client on a temporary basis to support or supplement the workforce of the client in situations such as personnel absences, temporary personnel shortages, and workload changes resulting from seasonal demands or special assignments or projects, and which, both under contract and in fact:
Negotiates with clients for such matters as time, place, type of work, working conditions, quality, and price of the services;
Determines assignments or reassignments of individuals to its clients, even if the individuals retain the right to refuse specific assignments;
Sets the rate of pay of the individuals, whether or not through negotiation;
Pays the individuals from its account or accounts; and
Hires and terminates individuals who perform services for the clients.
(25) Total unemployment.
An employee is “totally unemployed" in any week for which he or she earns no wages.
“Trucker" means a contract operator with a trucking carrier.
(25m) Valid new claim week.
“Valid new claim week" means the first week of an employee's benefit year.
(25s) Vocational training.
“Vocational training" includes technical, skill-based, or job readiness training intended to pursue a career.
Unless the department otherwise specifies by rule:
“Wages" means every form of remuneration payable, directly or indirectly, for a given period, or payable within a given period if this basis is permitted or prescribed by the department, by an employing unit to an individual for personal services.
Any payment in kind or other similar advantage received from an individual's employing unit for personal services, except as provided in par. (c)
The value of an employee achievement award that is compensation for services.
The value of tips that are received while performing services which constitute employment, and that are included in a written statement furnished to an employer under 26 USC 6053
Any payment under a deferred compensation and salary reduction arrangement which is treated as wages under 26 USC 3306
Any payment made by a corporation electing to be taxed as a partnership under subchapter S of chapter 1
of the federal internal revenue code, 26 USC 1361
, to an officer, which is reasonable compensation for services performed for the corporation, or the reasonable value of services performed by an officer for such a corporation, if the officer receives no payment for the services or less than the reasonable value of the services, except:
A distribution of earnings and profits which is in excess of any such payment;
A loan to an officer evidenced by a promissory note signed by the officer prior to the payment of the loan proceeds and recorded in the records of such a corporation as a loan to the officer;
A repayment of a loan or payment of interest on a loan made by an officer to such a corporation and recorded in the records of the corporation as a liability of the corporation;
A reimbursement by such a corporation of reasonable corporate expenses incurred by an officer which is documented by a written expense voucher and recorded in the records of the corporation as corporate expenses; or
A reasonable lease or rental payment to an officer who owns property which is leased or rented to such a corporation.
The amount of any payment, including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities or into an account to provide for such payment, made to or on behalf of an employee or any of his or her dependents under a plan or system established by an employer which makes provision for its employees generally, or for its employees generally and their dependents, or for a class or classes of its employees, or for a class or classes of its employees and their dependents, on account of:
Sickness or accident disability, except that in the case of payments made to an employee or any of his or her dependents, “wages" excludes only payments which are received under ch. 102
or under any federal law which provides for payments on account of a work-related injury or illness analogous to those provided under ch. 102
as a result of employment for an employer;
Medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability; or
Any payment for sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability, made by an employer to or on behalf of an employee after the expiration of 6 months following the last month in which the employee worked for the employer.
Any payment made to or on behalf of an employee or his or her beneficiary under a cafeteria plan, within the meaning of 26 USC 125
, if the payment would not be treated as wages without regard to that plan and if 26 USC 125
would not treat the payment as constructively received.
Except as provided in par. (b) 4.
, any payment made to, or on behalf of, an employee or his or her beneficiary:
From or to a trust described in 26 USC 401
(a) which is exempt from taxation under 26 USC 501
(a) at the time of the payment unless the payment is made to an employee of the trust as remuneration for services rendered as an employee and not as a beneficiary of the trust;
Under or to an annuity contract described in 26 USC 403
(b), other than a payment for the purchase of such a contract which is made by reason of a salary reduction agreement, whether evidenced by a written instrument or otherwise;
To supplement pension benefits under a plan or trust described in subd. 4. a.
to take into account some portion or all of the increase in the cost of living, as determined by the U.S. secretary of labor, since retirement but only if the payment is under a plan which is treated as a welfare plan under 29 USC 1002
(2) (B) (ii).
The payment by an employer, without deduction from the remuneration of an employee, of the tax imposed on the employee under 26 USC 3101
with respect to remuneration paid to the employee for domestic service in a private home of the employer or for agricultural labor.
Remuneration paid in any medium other than cash to an employee for service not in the course of the employer's trade or business.
Remuneration paid to or on behalf of an employee if and to the extent that at the time of the payment it is reasonable to believe that a corresponding deduction is allowable under 26 USC 217
, determined without regard to 26 USC 274
Any payment or series of payments by an employer to an employee or any of his or her dependents which is paid:
Upon or after the termination of an employee's employment relationship because of the employee's death or retirement for disability; and
Under a plan established by the employer which makes provision for its employees generally or a class or classes of its employees, or for such employees or class or classes of employees and their dependents, other than a payment or series of payments which would have been paid if the employee's employment relationship had not been so terminated.
Any contribution, payment or service provided by an employer which may be excluded from the gross income of an employee, or the employee's spouse or dependents, under the provisions of 26 USC 120
relating to amounts received under qualified group legal services plans.
Any payment made or benefit furnished to or for the benefit of an employee if, at the time of the payment or furnishing, it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude the payment or benefit from income under 26 USC 127
The value of any meals or lodging furnished by or on behalf of an employer if, at the time of the furnishing, it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such items from income under 26 USC 119
Any payment made by an employer to a survivor or the estate of a former employee after the year in which the employee died.
Any benefit provided to or on behalf of an employee if at the time the benefit is provided it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude the benefit from income under 26 USC 117
The amount of any refund required to be made by an employer under section 421 of the federal medicare catastrophic coverage act of 1988, P.L. 100-360
Remuneration for services performed in a fishing rights-related activity of an Indian tribe by a member of that tribe for another member of that tribe or for a qualified Indian entity, as provided in 26 USC 7873
Any contribution made by an employer into or payment made from a supplemental unemployment benefit plan for employees, if the contribution or payment is not considered “wages" under 26 USC 3306
(b), regardless of whether the plan is part of an employer profit-sharing plan.
(26m) Waiting period.
“Waiting period" means any period of time under s. 108.04 (3)
for which no benefits are payable to a claimant as a condition precedent to receipt of benefits.
“Week" means calendar week, starting Sunday and ending Saturday; but, where an employee starts a working shift on a given Saturday, all of the employee's hours and pay for that shift shall be counted in the calendar week which includes that Saturday.
(28) Weekly benefit rate.
An employee's “weekly benefit rate" from a given employer means the amount computed in accordance with s. 108.05
History: 1971 c. 53
; 1971 c. 213
; 1973 c. 247
; 1975 c. 223
; 1975 c. 373
; 1977 c. 29
; 1979 c. 52
; 1981 c. 36
; 1983 a. 8
; 1983 a. 168
; 1983 a. 189
, 329 (25)
, (28); 1983 a. 384
; 1985 a. 17
; 1987 a. 38
; 1987 a. 255
; 1989 a. 31
; 1989 a. 56
; 1989 a. 77
; 1991 a. 89
; 1993 a. 112
; 1995 a. 27
, 9130 (4)
; 1995 a. 118
; 1997 a. 3
; 1999 a. 15
; 2001 a. 35
; 2003 a. 197
; 2005 a. 25
; 2007 a. 20
s. 9121 (6) (a)
; 2007 a. 59
; 2009 a. 180
; 2011 a. 32
; 2013 a. 20
; 2013 a. 173
; 2015 a. 55
; 2015 a. 195
; 2015 a. 258
; 2017 a. 157
; s. 35.17 correction in (19).
An employee can at the same time be an employer, responsible for unemployment compensation contributions. Price County Telephone Co. v. Lord, 47 Wis. 2d 704
, 177 N.W.2d 904
Under sub. (3) [now sub. (12)], the person must first be found to be an employee under par. (a); the second step is to determine whether an exemption applies. Transport Oil, Inc. v. Cummings, 54 Wis. 2d 256
, 195 N.W.2d 649
CETA employees are disqualified for unemployment compensation by sub. (5) (g) 1. [now sub. (15) (g) 1.]. Bliss v. DILHR, 101 Wis. 2d 245
, 304 N.W.2d 783
(Ct. App. 1981).
Owner-operators of semitractors who leased services to a trucking company were considered employees of the trucking company. Stafford Trucking, Inc. v. DILHR, 102 Wis. 2d 256
, 306 N.W.2d 79
(Ct. App. 1981).
Corporate owner-operators of trucks were both employers and employees under this section. Wisconsin Cheese Service, Inc. v. DILHR, 108 Wis. 2d 482
, 322 N.W.2d 495
(Ct. App. 1982).
Truck owner-operators who leased trucks to a trucking company were not company employees. Star Line Trucking Corp. v. DILHR, 109 Wis. 2d 266
, 325 N.W.2d 872
Coverage under sub. (3) (a) [now sub. (12) (a)] is broad, almost presumptive. Princess House, Inc. v. DILHR, 111 Wis. 2d 46
, 330 N.W.2d 169
Graduate students preparing dissertations were “regularly attending classes" under sub. (5) (i) 1. [now sub. (15) (i) 1.] even though they attended no class meetings. Bachrach v. DILHR, 114 Wis. 2d 131
, 336 N.W.2d 698
(Ct. App. 1983).
“Wages" includes salaries and benefits received while taking compensatory time off. Transportation Dept. v. LIRC, 122 Wis. 2d 358
, 361 N.W.2d 722
(Ct. App. 1984).
When a contractor, in fulfilling a contract with a principal, employs an individual for whom the contractor is subject to the compensation or reimbursement requirements of ch. 108, the individual is the employee of the contractor and not of the principal. Robert Hansen Trucking, Inc. v. LIRC, 126 Wis. 2d 323
, 377 N.W.2d 151
Profit-sharing distributions are includable under the definition of “wages." La Crosse Footwear v. LIRC, 147 Wis. 2d 419
, 434 N.W.2d 392
(Ct. App. 1988).
As the refund of dues to union stewards was not remuneration for services, it did not constitute “wages" under sub. (26), and was not assessable to the union for contribution purposes. Local No. 695 v. LIRC, 154 Wis. 2d 75
, 452 N.W.2d 368
The direct seller exclusion under sub. (15) (k) 16. is not restricted to persons who actually make sales to consumers in the home, but includes distributors who sell to dealers engaged in the sale of products for resale in the home whose compensation is directly related to the amount of sales made. National Safety Associates, Inc. v. LIRC, 199 Wis. 2d 106
, 543 N.W.2d 584
(Ct. App. 1995), 95-1053
The test of whether work is localized under sub. (15) (b) and (d) focuses not on where the majority of the work is performed, but on whether the work performed outside of the state is incidental to the work performed within the state. Gilbert v. LIRC, 2008 WI App 173
, 315 Wis. 2d 726
, 762 N.W.2d 671
The test for determining whether an individual is an employee within the meaning of sub. (12) (bm) follows a two-step analysis. The department carries the burden of proof on this question. If the department demonstrates that the individual performed services for pay, the individual is presumed to be an employee for purposes of unemployment compensation and the burden shifts to the employer to prove that the individual is exempt under sub. (12) (bm). Gilbert v. LIRC, 2008 WI App 173
, 315 Wis. 2d 726
, 762 N.W.2d 671
When an overpayment was the result of DWD's and LIRC's misinterpretation of the law in concluding that a claimant was eligible for benefits in a week he did not actually receive social security disability payments, DWD's misinterpretation of the law constituted departmental error within the meaning of sub. (10e). Because the overpayment did not result from the fault of the claimant, the overpayment was waived under s. 108.22 (8) (a) and (c). DWD v. LIRC, 2017 WI App 68
, ___ Wis. 2d ___, ___ N.W.2d ___, 16-2066
Institutions of higher education, including VTAE [technical college] districts, are included within the unemployment compensation act by reason of 26 USC 3309 (a) and (d). 61 Atty. Gen. 18.
Strict compliance with all criteria in sub. (12m) and s. 108.065 is required before a company will qualify as an employee service company and the employer for unemployment compensation purposes. 80 Atty. Gen. 154
Sub. (15) (k) 14. does not conflict with federal law or violate the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Zambrane v. Reinert, 291 F.3d 964
Coverage of certain corporate officers and limited liability company members. 108.025(1)
In this section, “principal officer" means:
An individual named as a principal officer in a corporation's most recent annual report or, if that information is not current, an individual holding an office described in the corporation's most recent annual report as a principal officer; or
An individual named as a member of a limited liability company that is treated as a corporation under this chapter in the records of the company required to be kept under s. 183.0405
as of the date of an election under this section.
If an employer is organized as a corporation or limited liability company that is treated as a corporation under this chapter, the employer has no annual payroll for the calendar year preceding an election or has an annual payroll of less than the amount specified in s. 108.18 (9)
which establishes separate solvency contribution rates for the calendar year preceding an election, and the employer files a notice of election, in the manner prescribed by the department, to exclude the service of all of its principal officers who have a direct or indirect substantial ownership interest in the corporation or limited liability company, employment does not include the service of those officers.
An election of an employer under this section does not apply in any calendar year if the annual payroll of the employer for the preceding calendar year equaled or exceeded the amount specified in s. 108.18 (9)
which establishes separate solvency contribution rates.
An employer which files an election under this section may reelect coverage of its principal officers under this section by filing a notice of reelection with the department. An employer which reelects coverage of its principal officers is not eligible to file a notice of election of noncoverage under this section.
To be effective for any calendar year, a notice of election or reelection must be received by the department no later than March 31 except that in the case of an employing unit which becomes an employer during a calendar year, notice of election must be received by the department no later than the date on which the initial contributions of the employer become payable under s. 108.17 (1m)
, and except that if the due date for a notice of election or reelection falls on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday under state or federal law, the due date is the next following day which is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday under state or federal law. If a notice of election or reelection is mailed, it is timely if it is either postmarked by the due date or received by the department no later than 3 days after that date. An election is effective for each calendar year until the employer files a timely notice of reelection.